Recently Added Products
2011 National Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS)
Investigators: Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) is an epidemiologic surveillance system established by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to monitor the prevalence of youth behaviors that most influence health. The 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is one component of the YRBS. The 2011 National Youth Behavior Risk Survey (YRBS) is a school-based survey that provides data representative of 9th through 12th grade students in public and private schools in the United States. Since 1991, the YRBS has been conducted every two years by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The national YRBS is one component of a larger surveillance system called the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) that monitors six priority health-risk behaviors that contribute markedly to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems among youth and adults in the United States. The 2011 National YRBS data set contains 207 variables administered to 15,425 respondents. Data were collected on the following priority risk behaviors among youth including: sexual behaviors that contribute to unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV infection; behaviors that contribute to unintentional injuries and violence; alcohol and other drug use; tobacco use; unhealthy dietary behaviors; and inadequate physical activity. The YRBS also measures the prevalence of obesity and asthma among youth and young adults.
A Clinic-Based AIDS Education Program for Female Adolescents
Investigators: Vaughn Rickert, Anita Gottlieb, & Susan Jay
This is a single-session group intervention originally targeted toward sexually active girls between 13 and 21 years of age. The session includes a brief lecture on the transmission and prevention of HIV/AIDS (based on CDC guidelines), followed by a video explaining the purpose and use of condoms. As the session ends, participants receive an educational booklet reinforcing the program's lessons and coupons that may be redeemed anonymously for an unmarked box of condoms at a local pharmacy. The redemption rate of the coupons provides a measure of the program's impact. A field study of the intervention was conducted with 75 White and African-American females, all of whom were sexually active. Among prior purchasers of condoms, girls who took part in the intervention were significantly more likely to redeem the coupons than were control groups of their peers. Overall, 60% of program participants obtained condoms, a rate 2 1/2 times greater than that recorded in comparable programs without a confidential redemption procedure. Click here to view more detailed information on this program.
A Health Care Program for First-Time Adolescent Mothers and their Infants
Investigators: Ann L. O'Sullivan
Originally designed for low-income, unwed teens under 17 years of age, this clinic-based program aims to help first-time mothers prevent repeat pregnancies, return to school, improve immunization rates for their infants, and reduce their use of hospital emergency room services for routine infant care. Several services are offered in the context of a teen baby clinic, including: (1) well-baby care at 2 weeks, and at months 2, 4, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18; (2) discussion of family planning and referral to a birth control clinic; (3) instruction on parenting skills with a social worker; and (4) informal parenting education through videotapes, slides, and discussions with a nurse practitioner or trained volunteer. A field study and 18-month follow-up assessment of the intervention were conducted with 243 African-American mothers at an urban teaching hospital. Compared to a control group of teens receiving routine well-baby care, program participants experienced significantly fewer repeat pregnancies (12% vs. 28%), reduced their use of the emergency room for routine care, and were more likely to obtain full immunization for their newborns. Click here to view more detailed information on this program.
ABAN AYA Youth Project
Investigators: Brian Flay, DPhil, Sally Graumlich, EdD, CHES, & the ABAN AYA Team
ABAN AYA is an Afrocentric social development curriculum instructed over a four-year period, beginning in the fifth grade. The ABAN AYA name is drawn from two Ghanaian words: ABAN (fence) signifies double/social protection; AYA (the unfurling fern) signifies self-determination. The purpose of ABAN AYA is to promote abstinence from sex, and to teach students how to avoid drugs and alcohol, and how to resolve conflicts non-violently. ABAN AYA was developed to address multiple problem behaviors such as violence, substance abuse, delinquency and sexual activity, simultaneously in a long-term intervention specifically for African American youths in grades five through eight. The longitudinal evaluation of the program involved 12 schools in the metropolitan Chicago area between 1994 and 1998. At baseline, 1153 fifth graders participated in the pencil-and-paper assessment. All participants were African American. Follow-up assessments were conducted at the conclusion of grades five through eight. At study conclusion, there were no significant intervention effects for girls. For boys, however, ABAN AYA significantly reduced the rate of increase in violent behavior (by 35% compared with controls), provoking behavior (41%) school delinquency (31%) drug use (32%), and recent sexual intercourse (44%). ABAN AYA also improved the rate of increase in condom use (95%) as compared to the health education control condition. Aban Aya is supported by the Office of Adolescent Health's Teen Pregnancy Prevention (TPP) program as an EBI that is medically accurate, age appropriate, and has proven through rigorous evaluation to prevent teen pregnancy and/or associated sexual risk behaviors. Click here to view more detailed information on this program.
AIDS Prevention for Adolescents in School
Investigators: Heather J. Walter & Roger D. Vaughan
This six-session program for high school students is delivered by regular classroom teachers. Combining principles of the health belief model with social psychology, the curriculum aims to improve students' knowledge, beliefs, self-efficacy, and risk behaviors concerning HIV/AIDS. The first two classes provide general information about the transmission and prevention of HIV/AIDS and teach students how to appraise their own risk behaviors. During the next two sessions, myths about peers' sexual behaviors are corrected, values clarification is introduced, and students use role play and negotiation skills to practice delaying sexual intercourse. The final lessons involve discussions of purchasing and using condoms. A field study of the program was conducted with a predominantly African-American and Hispanic sample of students attending four New York City public high schools. Compared with a comparison group of peers, program participants scored significantly higher on measures of knowledge, beliefs about the benefits of risk reduction, and beliefs about one's own ability to effect positive change (e.g., self-efficacy). At the three-month follow-up assessment, the program was found to be particularly effective in reducing sexually active participants' number of total sex partners and number of sex acts with high-risk partners, and in increasing the use of condoms. Click here to view more detailed information on this program.
AIDS Risk Reduction Education and Skills Training Program (ARREST)
Investigators: Michele D. Kipke
Principles of the health belief model and social learning theory form the conceptual framework for this program, together with strategies previously found to be effective in changing such adolescent health-risk behaviors as cigarette smoking and early pregnancy. Originally designed for teens between 12 and 16 years of age, the intervention includes three 90-minute, small group sessions, in which participants receive five forms of assistance: (1) information about the transmission and prevention of HIV/AIDS; (2) instruction in purchasing and using condoms with spermicide; (3) guidance in self-assessment of risk behaviors; (4) training in decision-making, communication, and assertiveness skills; and (5) peer group support for HIV/AIDS prevention and risk reduction. In addition to lectures and modeling by instructors, teens complete role plays, skill-building exercises, and homework activities. A field study of the program was conducted with 87 African-American and Latino youths, who were recruited from three New York City community-based organizations providing alternative education and after-school programs for high-risk teens. Comparing four week follow-up measures of program participants with a control group of peers, participants showed significant gains in knowledge and attitudes about AIDS, as well as in sexual refusal and negotiation skills. However, no differences were found between the groups' risk-related sexual behaviors. Click here to view more detailed information on this program.
ASSESS for Adolescent Risk Reduction
Investigators: Bradley O. Boekeloo
The ASSESS program provides tools to enhance risk-reduction communication between health care providers and teens while in a physician's office or clinic setting. A randomized controlled behavioral intervention trial of the program was conducted in the metropolitan Washington, DC area between 1995 and 1997. The trial involved 19 physicians at five primary care pediatric practices, and 215 teens who were randomly assigned to intervention (n=205) or control group (n=114) conditions. Control group teens received their usual health care examination. Intervention group teens listened to an audiotape and answered 11 risk-related questions. The physician used answer sheets, pamphlets, an icebreaker activity and role-playing strategies to encourage risk behavior discussion and practice risk refusal strategies. Participants were interviewed post-checkup to determine how many sexual health topics they had discussed with their provider. Telephone follow-up interviews were conducted at three months and nine months. Study findings showed that more intervention teens reported discussing sexual topics with their physicians than did control group teens. At three-month follow-up, more sexually active intervention group teens reported condom use than control group teens. While more vaginal intercourse was also reported in the intervention group than the control group, this was not true of overall sexual intercourse. At nine months, there were no group differences in sexual behavior; however, more signs of STDs were reported by the control than the intervention group. Click here to view more detailed information on this program.
Adolescent Decision-Making and Contraceptive Behavior: San Francisco, 1984-1986
Investigators: Nancy E. Adler, Susan M. Kegeles, & Charles E. Irwin, Jr.
This study examined adolescents' decision-making regarding contraceptive use and its relation to their contraceptive and reproductive intentions and actual behavior. The four contraceptive methods most commonly used by adolescents were examined: the pill, diaphragm, condom, and withdrawal. The research used an expended version of the theory of reasoned action. The main hypothesis was that adolescents would engage in active decision-making. It was predicted that adolescents would act rationally and that their contraceptive intentions would follow from their beliefs, values, and perceptions of social norms surrounding the use of contraceptives. Measures included self reports of sexual behavior (e.g., number of partners, frequency of intercourse), contraceptive behavior, prior use of contraception, prior sexual behavior, pregnancy, assessment of decision processes relating to contraceptive use, beliefs and attitudes about and evaluation of the consequences of using contraception, perceptions of the wishes of others regarding the use of contraception, motivation to comply with the wishes of others concerning contraception, views of general social expectations regarding use of contraceptives, and intention to use contraceptives.
Adolescent Women's Contraceptive Decision Making Project, Baltimore City, 1988
Investigators: Carol Weisman and Stacey Plichta
The Adolescent Women's Contraceptive Decision-Making Project, Baltimore City, 1988 is a six-month, longitudinal study that explores the use of contraceptives among adolescent women. The objective of the study was to determine whether consistency of contraceptive use is associated with the young woman's social network (family, friends, and sexual partners) and their attitudes towards pregnancy and contraception. Respondents were surveyed at three points in time: At baseline, at 3 months, and at 6 months. A total of 430 cases and 2,678 variables are included in this study. Other topics addressed in the study include: demographics (household characteristics/composition, race, education, employment, religion, etc.); contraceptive behavior; and attitudes toward pregnancy and contraception.
Adolescent Women's Contraceptive Decision-Making Project, Baltimore City, 1988
Investigators: Carol Weisman & Stacey Plichta
This study explores the use of contraceptives among adolescent women. The objective of this longitudinal study was to determine whether consistency of contraceptive use is associated with the young woman's social network (family, friends, and sexual partners) and their attitudes towards pregnancy and contraception. Respondents were surveyed at three points in time: At baseline, at 3 months, and at 6 months. A total of 430 cases and 2,678 variables are included in this study. Other topics in the study include: demographics (household characteristics/composition, race, education, employment, religion, etc.); contraceptive behavior; and attitudes toward pregnancy and contraception.