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Computer-Assisted Motivational Interviewing (CAMI): Preventing Repeat Births Among Adolescent Mothers
Investigators: Beth Barnet, Jiexin Liu, Margo DeVoe, Anne K. Duggan, Melanie A. Gold, & Edward Pecukonis
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in 2010, more than 360,000 infants were born to women aged 15 to 19 years in the United States. Nearly one-quarter of adolescent mothers give birth to another child within two years, despite national efforts to increase timing between births. Adolescent mothers who give birth to more than one child may be at high risk for experiencing poorer medical, educational, economic, and developmental outcomes. The purpose of the Computer-Assisted Motivational Interviewing (CAMI) is to increase motivation among adolescent mothers to consistently use condoms and contraception with the long-term goal of reducing rapid repeat births. CAMI consists of at least two 60-minute sessions conducted in two-parts by trained counselors who meet one-on-one with pregnant and/or parenting adolescent mothers, ages 12 through 18 years old. During the first part of each session, participants use the computer-based CAMI Program to answer questions about current sexual relationships and contraceptive use intentions and behaviors. Based on the responses generated, CAMI counselors conduct a stage-matched motivational interviewing session to enhance participants' motivation to consistently use condoms and contraception in order to reduce the risk for a repeat pregnancy. An evaluation of CAMI has demonstrated that receiving two or more CAMI sessions, either alone or within a multi-component home-based intervention, reduced the risk of repeat births among adolescent mothers aged 18 years and younger. Click here to view more detailed information on this program.
Consequences of the Adoption Decision Among Clients of the Options for Pregnancy Program in Washington and Northern Idaho, 1985
Investigators: Steven D. McLaughlin, Diane L. Manninen, and Linda D. Winges
Data were collected on a total of 269 pregnant adolescents--146 who chose to parent their children and 123 who chose to relinquish their children for adoption. This sample represents adolescent mothers served by a pregnancy counseling program affiliated with a large adoption agency in the Pacific Northwest. The major objective of the study was to compare the two groups with respect to subsequent educational attainment, marriage and fertility, labor force participation, income, and various social/psychological measures, such as satisfaction with their decision to parent or relinquish, life satisfaction, and self-esteem. The research was designed to serve two separate objectives. The first was to provide basic descriptive information necessary to answer the questions, "Do adolescent mothers who place their children for adoption experience more or less favorable outcomes than adolescent mothers who elect to parent their children?" and "In what respects do relinquishing adolescents fare better or worse than parenting adolescents?" To date, there is very little information regarding the subsequent experiences of adolescent mothers who elect to relinquish children for adoption. There are two primary reasons for this lack of information. First, relinquishment is an increasingly rare event; second, adoption has been traditionally a highly confidential process making it difficult or impossible to collect data from relinquishing mothers. The second objective of this research was to contribute to the literature on the consequences of adolescent fertility by drawing on the unique opportunity offered by this study to compare outcomes among adolescent mothers who share the experience of a live birth, but who differ in the relinquish versus parent decision. Since both groups of adolescents had a live birth but only one group parented the child, observed differences between the two groups can more confidently be attributed to the experience of caring for a child as an adolescent mother.
Current Population Surveys: Annual Demographic Survey (also known as March Supplement)
Investigators: United States Census Bureau and Bureau of Labor Statistics
The Current Population Surveys (CPS), sponsored jointly by the U.S. Census Bureau and the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), is the nationís primary source of labor force statistics for the entire population. The CPS is the source of numerous high-profile economic statistics including the Nationís unemployment rate and provides data on the wide range of issues relating to employment and earnings. The CPS is a multistage probability sample of housing units in the United States. It produces monthly labor force and related estimates for the total U.S, civilian noninstitutional population and for various age, sex, race, and ethnic groups. The Annual Demographic Survey (ADS), also known as the March Supplement collects data on family characteristics, household composition, marital status, migration, income from all sources, information on weeks worked, time spent looking for work or on layoff from a job, occupation and industry classification of the job held longest during the year, health insurance coverage and receipt of noncash benefits. The ADS sample consists of the March CPS sample and November CPS households containing at least one person of Hispanic origin. The 2001 Annual Demographic Survey consists of 143 variables and 64,362 cases in the household data, 75 variables and 56,480 cases in the family data, and 466 variables and 128,821 cases in the person data.
Cuyahoga County, Ohio Familial Communication and Adolescent Sexual Behavior Project, 1983
Investigators: Janet R. Kahn
This study examines the extent of parent-child communication about sexuality and the relative importance of that communication to the child's sexual behavior and attitudes at adolescence. In 1976, the Project on Human Sexual Development (PHSD) conducted a major study on family life and sexual learning, involving personal interviews with over 1,400 parents of young children in Cuyahoga County, Ohio. The present study is a continuation of that work. Three hundred twenty-six (326) adolescent children aged 12-18 were interviewed. The adolescent respondents were drawn from two subsamples: (1) PHSD families; and (2) a supplemental sample of families living in the same areas in 1983 that did not participate in the PHSD. Parents of participating adolescents were asked to complete questionnaires providing updates on their perspectives; 71% of mothers and 56% of fathers did so. The project had four essential purposes: (1) to add to the descriptive information gathered earlier on the timing and content of parent-child communication about sexuality; (2) to create a model of factors associated with successful parent-child communication about sexuality; (3) to develop a second model examining the role of this communication and other factors in influencing adolescents' sexual behavior, knowledge and attitudes; and (4) to look at parents' use and need for assistance in their roles as sex educators of their children to provide information that can be used by those organizations seeking to help families with this important aspect of life. The teenagers were asked to respond to a variety of questions including family composition, educational background and aspirations, family closeness, religiosity, friendship networks, discussions with parents, sexual knowledge, sexual behaviors ranging from kissing to intercourse, reactions to sexuality, histories of intercourse patterns and birth control usage. Parents were asked to provide information on socioeconommic status, changes in family composition, marital status and employment, discussions of sexual topics, parental values, sex role attitudes, and sources of sex education assistance. Note for users of DAAPPP Data Sets #01-B1DAAPPP data sets 01 through B1 are comprised of a User's Guide, SPSS syntax files (*.SPS or *.SPX) and raw data files only. Most of these datasets contain SPSS syntax files that use Job Control Language (JCL) from 1980s versions of SPSS-X. Because the syntax is old, the syntax files require editing to conform to the current syntax standards used by SPSS/Windows or SPSS/Unix. If you require technical assistance in using or editing these syntax files, please contact Sociometrics' Data Support Group at 800.846.3475 or email@example.com.
Investigators: Michelle Ybarra, Tonya Prescott, Josephine Korchmaros, Julius Kiwanuka, Sheana Bull, David Bangsberg, Norma Ware, & Ruth Birungi
CyberSenga is part of an effort to increase technology-based HIV prevention research in resource-limited settings such as Uganda. The purpose of CyberSenga is to prevent more people from getting HIV and to help those who have HIV live healthy lives by taking advantage of Internet technology to give young people both honest and truthful information, and the tools they need to make good decisions. CyberSenga consists of five one-hour modules conducted through the online CyberSenga software, along with a four-month post-intervention booster session. At the beginning of the program, participants answer two questions to sort them into four groups: abstinent boys, abstinent girls, sexually active boys, and sexually active girls. Based on their responses, participants are directed to intervention content tailored for saliency based upon their biological sex and sexual experience, although all versions include the same concepts. Content discusses relevant topics to provide youth with the information and skills they need to make healthy decisions in the future. An evaluation of CyberSenga has demonstrated that receiving the five CyberSenga sessions improves youths’ HIV preventive information as well as motivation to use condoms, and the booster session delivered four months after the initial intervention enhances the learning effect. Click here to view more detailed information on this program.
Detroit Mother-Daughter Communication Patterns: Daughter File, 1978
Investigators: Greer Fox
The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of female parents on the sexual and contraceptive behavior of teenage daughters. The strategy for doing so was to examine patterns of communication about sex roles and sexual behavior between mothers and daughters in different types of families and to measure the impact of varying communication patterns on the sexual and contraceptive knowledge and behavior of daughters. Demographic, attitudinal, and behavioral data were collected from both mothers and daughters in Detroit, Michigan, in separate but simultaneous face-to-face interviews. The sample consisted of 449 14- or 15-year-old females, and their mothers, all of whom volunteered for the study. This dataset contains the data from the daughters. Mother data is available separately.
Drug User Intervention Trial (DUIT)
Investigators: Richard S. Garfein, PhD, MPH, Steffanie Strathdee, Ph.D, Lawrence Ouellet, PhD, Sharon Hudson, PhD, Mary Latka, PhD, Holly Hagan, PhD, Hanne Thiede, DVM, MPH, Elizabeth Golub, PhD, Marie Bailey-Kloch, Karen Yen-Hobelman, PhD, Susan Bailey, PhD, Joyce Fitzgerald, Peter Kerndt, MD, MPH, Karla Wagner, PhD, David Vlahov, PhD, Farzana Kapadia, PhD, Nadine Snyder, BA, Jennifer V. Campbell, MPH, David Purcell, PhD, JD, Ian Williams, PhD, Paige Ingram, RN, Andrea Swartzendruber, MPH
DUIT is a small-group, clinic-based, behavioral intervention that aims to reduce risky injection and sexual behaviors among injection drug users who are HIV and HCV negative. During six 2-hour sessions, two trained health advisors promote group cohesion and peer education within the DUIT group. The health advisors also encourage behavior change by teaching peer-education tactics, risk-reduction strategies, and safer sex and injection negotiation skills. Ultimately, the DUIT program increases participants. perceived risk of HIV/HCV, their motivation to practice safer injection and sexual behaviors, their knowledge of risky behaviors, and key risk-reduction strategies. Click here to view more detailed information on this program.
Effects of Organized Family Planning Programs on U.S. Adolescent Fertility, 1970-1975
Investigators: Jacqueline Darroch Forrest
This file contains data used to estimate the effects of family planning programs in the U.S. on adolescent fertility. The study sample consists of 3,105 counties in the U.S. identified from Alan Guttmacher Institute files. The original study divided the counties into three kinds of statistical analysis units for analysis. The DAAPPP file focuses on county-level data only; however, the statistical analysis units used can be reconstructed using codes in the DAAPPP file. The file contains the following information for the years 1970 and 1975: (1) county-level tabulations of U.S. women by age, race, marital status, and poverty status based on the 1970 Census; (2) data on the number of organized family planning provider sites in each county and the number of teenage patients by age and race; (3) abortion accessibility measures; (4) private medical contraceptive sources; (5) socioeconomic and demographic measures; and (5) birth rate figures. Note for users of DAAPPP Data Sets #01-B1DAAPPP data sets 01 through B1 are comprised of a User's Guide, SPSS syntax files (*.SPS or *.SPX) and raw data files only. Most of these datasets contain SPSS syntax files that use Job Control Language (JCL) from 1980s versions of SPSS-X. Because the syntax is old, the syntax files require editing to conform to the current syntax standards used by SPSS/Windows or SPSS/Unix. If you require technical assistance in using or editing these syntax files, please contact Sociometrics' Data Support Group at 800.846.3475 or firstname.lastname@example.org.
Entre Nous Jeunes
Investigators: Simon-Pierre Tegang, M.Sc., Jean Paul Tchupo, M.A., Gdon Yomi, M.Sc., & Blanche Djofang, B.A.
During the 18-month program, Entre Nous Jeunes utilizes a peer-education strategy to increase contraceptive prevalence and reduce the prevalence of STI/HIV and unintended pregnancies. Young adult peer educators in the community educate youth about HIV prevention and safer sex. Peer educators are trained during a one week-long session for the program. For two years, peer educators engage youth in the community by leading discussion groups, creating and using promotional materials, and referring peers to social and health services. The main objective of the program is for young people who have been exposed to a peer-educator to gain greater knowledge and practice more protective behaviors than those not exposed. The findings indicate the important contribution of the ENJ peer-educator program to the promotion of protective reproductive health behaviors to reduce unintended pregnancies and STIs among adolescents. In particular, the program was significantly associated with greater spontaneous knowledge of modern contraceptives and STI symptoms. Findings also suggest positive intervention effects on contraceptive knowledge for males, and virginity and contraceptive use at last intercourse for sexually active females. Click here to view more detailed information on this program.
Evaluating the Adoption Component of AFL Care Projects, 1989-1990
Investigators: Steven D. McLaughlin and Terry R. Johnson, Battelle Centers for Public Health Research and Evaluation
The study, Evaluating the Adoption Component of AFL Care Projects, 1989-1990, was designed to determine if any of the actions taken by Adolescent Family Life (AFL) pregnancy counseling programs have an effect on the likelihood that pregnant adolescent clients will elect to place their children for adoption. Since 1982, the AFL Program of the Office of Population Affairs (OPA) has sponsored a number of demonstration projects that provide health, education and social services for pregnant teenagers, teenage mothers and their families. By legislative mandate, each of these projects is required to have an adoption counseling component designed to increase the exposure of clients to the adoption alternative. These projects vary widely in their organizational characteristics, the approaches used to provide adoption counseling, the characteristics of clients served, and the characteristics of the communities within which they operate. They also differ in the percentage of pregnant adolescents served who choose adoption - from 0 to nearly 35 percent. Many factors affect a program's relinquishment rate. Programs serve clients with widely varying individual characteristics, including different intentions regarding the pregnancy when they first make contact with the agency. In addition, because programs operate in very different social contexts, various approaches to pregnancy counseling may result in very different outcomes. Because of these confounding effects, this study collected data on the programs themselves as well as individual-level data from the clients served. This study gathered data on 314 variables from 869 AFL clients from 29 AFL project sites.