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Places (discrete settlements), 1970, 1980, 1990
Investigators: National Opinion Research Center
Typically, places are discrete settlements, usually occupying only a portion of the county in which they are located. Places may extend across county boundaries but never across state boundaries. Census places are of two types - Incorporated Places, such as cities, villages, or towns, which have legally prescribed powers and functions; and Census Designated Places, (CDPs, previously "unincorporated areas"), which are densely settled areas (at least 1,000 persons per square mile) with a locally-used distinctive name. Places are a possible substitute for "neighborhood" if tract, block numbering area, and enumeration district are unavailable. This dataset includes socio-economic and demographic data for all places in the US. The first data file consists of data from the 1970 Census, and has 6,435 cases and 217 variables. The second covers data from the 1980 Census, and includes 218 variables for 22,516 cases. The third data file covers data from the 1990 Census and includes 240 variables for 23,417 cases.
Safety Counts: A Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention to Reduce HIV/Hepatitis Risks among Drug Users Who Are Not in Drug Treatment
Investigators: Michele Wood, Jonny Andía, Gricel Arredondo, Nan Corby, Jason Farrell, Camilla Harshbarger, Gary MacDonald, Sharon Novey, Kevin O’Connor, Fen Rhodes, Paul Simons, James Testaverde, & the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
The Safety Counts program is a proven intervention for out-of-treatment drug-using persons that will enable them to reduce their risk of becoming infected with or transmitting the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis viruses such as hepatitis C. The Safety Counts intervention is appropriate for HIV-positive as well as HIV-negative drug users. Safety Counts is based on research that found this intervention to be effective in reducing high-risk sex and drug-use behaviors among both injection and noninjection drug users. As such, it is recommended for implementation by community-based organizations (CBOs) serving drug users. Through structured group and individual activities, the intervention assists clients in setting personal risk reduction goals and developing specific steps for achieving them. In partnership with behavioral counselors and outreach workers, clients design and manage their personalized goals for reducing their risks of acquiring or transmitting HIV and viral hepatitis. Ongoing support for achieving risk reduction goals is provided through sustained contact with program staff, interactions with peers who are enrolled in the program, and exposure to the personal stories of other drug users in the local community who have been successful in reducing their own risks. Clients participate in the intervention for a period of 4 months. This client-centered intervention benefits the client and the community. The research showed that the intervention reduced HIV risks by reducing drug use, increasing condom use, and increasing self-reported entry into drug treatment. Clients benefit from the strong outreach component of Safety Counts and from referrals to medical and social services. For HIV-positive clients, Safety Counts may allow them to deal with issues beyond substance use and HIV, such as addressing risk behaviors that can lead to contracting hepatitis and other infections. All clients learn how to make positive changes in their lives through setting specific goals and developing action steps to achieve their goals. These skills empower clients to take charge of their own risk behaviors, thereby benefiting themselves, their partners, their families, and their communities.
School Districts, 1990
Investigators: National Center for Education Statistics, Department of Education
A public school district is an area whose public schools are administratively affiliated with a local education agency recognized by the state education agency as responsible for implementing the state's elementary and secondary public education program. While most areas of the U.S. are covered by one or more school districts, there are parts of some states that are not covered by any school district. These areas are referred to as "balance of county" areas and treated as "pseudo" school districts in the data set. In all or parts of some states, school districts are coextensive with counties, MCDs, places, or combinations thereof; in other areas, they have virtually no relationship to other census geography, and may even split blocks. This dataset includes demographic, administrative and financial data for a total of 15,304 school districts (15274 school districts + 30 balance of county areas). The data set has a total of 1,140 variables.
State Economic Areas, 1970, 1980
Investigators: National Opinion Research Center
A state economic area (SEA) is a group of counties within a state, defined by topographic and economic similarities. It is a subdivision of an economic sub-region and a possible "economic area," with the advantage of being geographically comprehensive. This dataset includes socio-economic and demographic data for all state economic areas in the US. The first data file consists of data from the 1970 Census, and has 216 variables for 510 cases. The second data file covers data from the 1980 Census, and includes 229 variables for 511 cases.
States are the primary governmental divisions of the United States. The District of Columbia is treated as a statistical equivalent of a state for census purposes. This data set includes data for all 50 states and the District of Columbia and includes 6,321 variables and 51 cases.