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Real Men Are Safe (REMAS)
Investigators: Donald A. Calsyn, PhD, Mary Hatch-Maillette, PhD, Susan Tross, PhD, Suzanne R. Doyle, PhD, Yong S. Song, PhD, Judy M. Harrer, PhD, Genise Lalos, MA, Sara B. Berns, PhD
REMAS is a group-level, clinic-based behavioral intervention designed to reduce HIV/STI risk among male substance abuse treatment center attendees. More specifically, the program aims to reduce the number of times that men engage in unprotected vaginal and anal sexual intercourse, or have sex while under the influence of drugs or alcohol. Two trained male health counselors teach participants information, help participants develop risk-reduction skills, and motivate behavior change through group discussion, role-play, and condom use skill training. REMAS is comprised of five 90-minute sessions where participants learn about HIV risky-behaviors, HIV prevention planning, and methods for communicating about safer sex and discussing sex without drugs. Click here to view more detailed information on this program.
Teen Health Project (THP) Training Modules
Investigators: Emily Newman & Josefina J. Card
These multimedia, interactive training modules will help you train for and implement Teen Health Project (THP): Community-Level HIV Prevention Intervention for Adolescents in Low Income Housing Development. THP, an HIV-prevention intervention for adolescents, was originally developed for adolescents age 12 to 17 living in low income housing developments. It was modeled after an effective HIV prevention program developed for and evaluated with adult women in similar living situations. The intervention draws on several earlier group interventions with demonstrated efficacy, and adds the community-level component for longer-term engagement and involvement of the adolescent participants. The Teen Health Project training contains 8 modules, and covers important information and skills for facilitators. The modules include videos, quizzes, and interactive learning exercises. Over the course of the training, the modules cover topics such as: program background and information; the original implementation(s) of the program; how to facilitate group discussions; and adapting the program for your context.
Focus on the Future
Investigators: Richard Crosby, PhD, Ralph J. DiClemente, PhD, Richard Charnigo, PhD, Gregory Snow, Adewale Troutman, MD
FOCUS ON THE FUTURE, a one-to-one, single session intervention, administered by a lay health advisor, is culturally appropriate for use among young (aged 18-29 years) heterosexual African American men newly diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection (STI). Based on the behavioral skills model, this one hour long program consists of a personalized discussion, presentation of basic STI/HIV/AIDS and safer sex information, and condom use skills practice. For each individual participant, the FOCUS ON THE FUTURE health facilitator initiates a discussion about the disproportionate HIV/AIDS burden experienced by African American men (illustrated using large posters); condom negotiation skills; and any questions, problems, and concerns the men may have regarding safer sex with their partners. The health facilitator also conducts a demonstration of available condom and lubricant varieties and correct condom and lubrication use. Throughout the session, the advisor encourages the individual to feel good about using condoms, to experience condoms as being compatible with sexual pleasure, to equate condom use with an investment in his future, and to actively protect himself from obtaining a future STI. Men are encouraged to use condoms that they feel fit them well and provide them with a sense of security. Participants receive pocketsize vials of water-based lubricants as well as 12 or more condoms of their choice from a broad selection of brands and sizes. Click here to view more detailed information on this program.
Community-based Directly Observed Therapy (C-DOT) Program
Investigators: Maribel Muñoz, RN, Karen Finnegan, MPH, Jhon Zeladita, RN, Adolfo Caldas, MSW, Eduardo Sanchez, MD, Miriam Callacna, RN, Christian Rojas, MD, Jorge Arevalo, MD, Jose Luis Sebastian, MD, Cesar Bonilla, MD, Jaime Bayona, MPH, MD, & Sonya Shin, MPH, MD
The C-DOT Program aims to increase adherence of individuals living with HIV beginning highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The program includes 4-day training for DOT workers. After training, DOT workers provide support to participants for a total of 11 months. For eight months DOT workers monitor all HAART doses (and doses of other medications for indications other than HIV) in participants' homes while providing social, emotional, and informational support to participants and their families and reporting missed doses, adverse events, and psychosocial crises to nurses. During the last three months DOT workers visit participants less frequently to prepare the participant for self-administration. Supervisors act as an intermediary between participants and the medical organization, coordinating other aspects of participants. medical care. Nurses supervise C-DOT Program staff and monitor follow-up care of participants. The C-DOT Program was shown to increase adherence, suppress viral load, and be associated with better tuberculosis outcomes. Additionally, the program has been shown to improve stigma, social support, self-efficacy, and health service acquisition. The C-DOT Program was originally implemented throughout the community as DOT workers conducted home visits to participants and monitored medication doses in homes or other community locations. This program may also be applicable to clinic settings and feasible to implement in clinics or hospitals serving individuals living with HIV. Click here to view more detailed information on this program.
Investigators: Russel S. Falck, Robert G. Carlson, & Harvey A. Siegal
Turning Point includes two separate interventions designed to reduce the frequency and probability of injection-risk behavior among IDUs not participating in drug abuse treatment programs. The basic intervention consists of two sessions. In the first session, participants undergo HIV antibody tests and receive pre-test counseling. In the second session, a counselor-educator provides detailed information about HIV and HIV transmission and guides the participant group through activities intended to teach behavioral strategies for avoiding exposure to HIV. Participants in the enhanced intervention complete the basic intervention and attend three additional sessions, in which they address HIV/AIDS pathology, drug addiction, and safer sex practices. Both interventions employ videotape presentations, role-play, hands-on demonstrations, and print materials. The enhanced intervention also employs slide presentations, self-assessment tests, and lecture/discussion. The program's effectiveness was evaluated in Dayton and Columbus, OH. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the two interventions. Surveys were administered to both groups at enrollment and six months after the intervention. A majority of participants in both the standard and enhanced interventions reported safer needle practices at follow-up. Although no difference in needle risk was observed between intervention groups when all subjects were included in analyses, participants in the enhanced intervention who reported unsafe needle practices at enrollment were significantly more likely to report safer needle practices at follow-up than similar participants in the standard intervention (Siegal, Falck, Carlson and Wang, 1995). Click here to view more detailed information on this program.
mDOT Program: For Individuals Receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART)
Investigators: Cynthia R. Pearson, PhD, Mark Micek, MD, Jane M. Simoni, PhD, Eduardo Matediana, MD, Diane P. Martin, PhD, & Stephen Gloyd, MD, MPH
The mDOT Program aims to increase adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for individuals living with HIV/AIDS through peer-provided directly observed therapy. The program significantly increased adherence to HAART at 6-week, 6-month, and 1-year follow ups and significantly increased the number of program participants achieving more than 90% adherence after 6 months. Peer educators are trained during a 2-day workshop to deliver directly observed therapy and support HAART adherence. After training, peer educators monitor morning HAART doses during the 6-week program period. Peer educators provide social support, adherence advice and health information to participants throughout the program. Peer educators complete refresher training every three months throughout the program. The mDOT Program was originally implemented in Beira, Mozambique, at a large-volume public institution providing free specialized HIV care and antiretroviral medications. Although this program was designed to operate in an HIV clinic or hospital, it may be feasible for other community-based organizations serving individuals living with HIV to implement the mDOT program. Click here to view more detailed information on this program.
A Peer Education Program for Taxicab/Tricycle Drivers and Other Bridge Populations
Investigators: Donald E. Morisky, ScD, ScM, MSPH, Chrystene Nguyen, MPH, Alfonso Ang, PhD, & Teodora V. Tiglao, EdD, MPH
The Peer Education Program aims to decrease sexual risk behaviors (such as unprotected sex) among members of a .bridge. population who are at risk of spreading STIs including HIV between high-risk groups (e.g., commercial sex workers) and the general population (e.g., other sexual partners). The Peer Education Program demonstrated increases in knowledge of HIV/AIDS transmission, positive attitudes toward condom use, and condom use frequency. The program includes a one-day needs assessment, a half-day peer educator information session and recruitment seminar, and a two-day peer educator training. For a year or more, peer educators share HIV prevention knowledge, distribute and promote condoms, and share educator-created prevention materials with coworkers and clients during normal work routines. Peer educators meet with program staff once a week throughout the program implementation to address questions or to problem solve ways to most effectively share safer sex messages with others. The Peer Education Program was originally implemented in the Philippines among drivers in the transportation industry but can readily be adapted to .bridge. populations in other settings and industries. The program.s peer education approach may also be useful in supporting HIV prevention behaviors among peers in many different types of communities and populations. Click here to view more detailed information on this program.
Adolescent Sexual Health Resources
Investigators: Sociometrics Corporation
This product consists of 5 resources: (1) 188 Facts About Teen Sex, Contraception, Pregnancy, Parenting, and Sexually Transmitted Infections. This handbook offers an accessible, reliable source of science-based facts on teen sex, contraception, pregnancy, parenthood, and sexually transmitted infections. (2) The Complete HIV/AIDS Teaching Kit. In a concise and convenient format The Complete HIV/AIDS Teaching Kit provides a multidisciplinary approach to teaching the biomedical, social, psychological, and behavioral aspects of HIV transmission, prevention and treatment-offering readers a full understanding of the disease. (3) Adolescent Sexual Health Education: An Activity Sourcebook. This sourcebook contains more than sixty ready-to-use activities to help practitioners educate teens about pregnancy and STD/HIV/AIDS prevention. (4) Model Programs for Adolescent Sexual Health. This is a directory of the most promising and proven effective sexual education and prevention programs in the United States. (5) Assessing Your Community's Needs and Assets: A Collaborative Approach to Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention. This guide will assist you in planning your needs assessment and evaluating the potential intervention strategies for your adolescent pregnancy prevention program.
Investigators: Michelle Ybarra, Tonya Prescott, Josephine Korchmaros, Julius Kiwanuka, Sheana Bull, David Bangsberg, Norma Ware, & Ruth Birungi
CyberSenga is part of an effort to increase technology-based HIV prevention research in resource-limited settings such as Uganda. The purpose of CyberSenga is to prevent more people from getting HIV and to help those who have HIV live healthy lives by taking advantage of Internet technology to give young people both honest and truthful information, and the tools they need to make good decisions. CyberSenga consists of five one-hour modules conducted through the online CyberSenga software, along with a four-month post-intervention booster session. At the beginning of the program, participants answer two questions to sort them into four groups: abstinent boys, abstinent girls, sexually active boys, and sexually active girls. Based on their responses, participants are directed to intervention content tailored for saliency based upon their biological sex and sexual experience, although all versions include the same concepts. Content discusses relevant topics to provide youth with the information and skills they need to make healthy decisions in the future. An evaluation of CyberSenga has demonstrated that receiving the five CyberSenga sessions improves youths’ HIV preventive information as well as motivation to use condoms, and the booster session delivered four months after the initial intervention enhances the learning effect. Click here to view more detailed information on this program.
Los Angeles Women's Health Risk Study, 1990
Investigators: David Kanouse
Investigators interviewed a stratified probability sample of 1,024 female street prostitutes in Los Angeles County between May 1990 and February 1991 to study behavior that is linked to transmission of HIV and other STDs. Although the study also collected blood samples from a subsample of 638 women to examine markers for HIV infection, as well as past syphilis and hepatitis B infection, the original investigator did not include blood sample data in this public use dataset. The specific aims of this study were to: develop numerical estimates of the size of the prostitute population in Los Angeles County and its distribution by predominant mode of solicitation of customers; characterize prostitute career patterns; perform HIV antibody testing to determine the prevalence of HIV infection in this population and its subgroups; measure the prevalence and incidence of specific sexual and drug-related risk behaviors and prevention behaviors and determine how these are related to prostitute characteristics and risk and prevention behaviors; and compare the characteristics of the population of prostitutes with those subgroups most likely to be recruited in convenience samples (e.g., from jails or STD clinics). The present study is unique in describing the characteristics, risk behavior and serological status of a probability sample of street prostitutes from a major metropolitan area of the U.S., which is also in AIDS epicenter.