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Nia: A Group-Level Intervention with African American Men Who Have Sex with Women
Investigators: Seth Kalichman, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Southeast HIV/AIDS Research and AIDS Survival Project, & the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Nia is a group-level, video-based intervention with African American men 18 years and older, with at least six hours of content. While the original researcher split the content into two, three-hour sessions, the intervention can also be conducted as three or four sessions. The goal of the Nia intervention is to reduce sexual risk behavior among African American men who have sex with women. The sessions create a context through which men can do the following: Learn new information and affirm existing correct knowledge about HIV/AIDS, Examine their own sexual risks, Build motivation and skills to reduce their risks, and Receive feedback from others. Nia sessions are interactive meetings that have both an educational and an entertaining aspect. In addition, Nia uses factors, such as male pride, racial and sexual identity, receiving and giving respect, and maintaining sexual pleasure while reducing risk, to reinforce procedures for risk reduction. A male facilitator helps create an environment where the men are comfortable learning, while a female facilitator is present to assist with practice of making and communicating safer sex decisions and to help challenge and change negative attitudes towards women. Nia groups can be held in a variety of settings, as long as they are conducted in a private room where the men will feel comfortable enough to participate.
Optimizing Partner Notification (OPeN)
Investigators: Tracey E. Wilson PhD, Matthew Hogben, PhD, Nicole Liddon, PhD, William M. McCormack, MD, Steve R. Rubin, & Michael A. Augenbraun, MD
OPEN, a clinic-based patient-centered program, promotes sexually transmitted infection (STI) partner notification in urban, minority populations with high rates of infection. A trained health educator delivers OPEN in 2 one-on-one counseling sessions. The first session (which lasts approximately 30 minutes) is delivered after the initial STI diagnosis, and the second session (which lasts about 10 minutes) is optional, and occurs roughly four weeks later, either in person or by phone. During the first session, the health educator engages in a discussion with the participant about the participant's risky sexual behaviors, and helps the participant to identify potential sexual partners needing notification of the STI. Then the participant and health educator develop a notification plan, and work on skills to improve sexual partner notification through role playing. At the end of the session the participant completes and signs a notification contract. During the second session, the health educator reviews with the participant any progress made on notification, and together they discuss any barriers encountered in notifying partners. Click here to view more detailed information on this program.
PETRA: Promoting Education, Training & Research on AIDS
Investigators: Angela Amarillas Roth, Alana Conner Snibbe, Ralph DiClemente, Diana Dull Akers, & Josefina J. Card
We have translated HIV/AIDS research findings into easy-to-navigate, easy-to-understand online resource modules in order to increase understanding of the social and behavioral aspects of this deadly epidemic. PETRA’s Information Modules include information about HIV/AIDS incidence, prevalence, antecedents, consequences, prevention, and treatment. The PETRA Information Modules are: Module 1: HIV /AIDS: The Epidemic Module 2: Preventing HIV/AIDS Module 3: Living with HIV/AIDS Module 4: Gender, Culture, and HIV/AIDS Each of the four modules contains several chapters. Each chapter, in turn, contains several topic pages. Users can explore modules, chapters, and topic pages in any order that they want. Every module and chapter begins with a helpful introduction, followed by topic pages with pictures, graphs, did-you-know questions, and compelling interactive features. The last topic page for each chapter presents relevant learning activities, assignments, web resources, and readings that allow the user to further explore each chapter’s key themes.
Poder Latino: A Community AIDS Prevention Program for Inner-City Latino Youth
Investigators: Hispanic Office of Planning & Evaluation and New England Research Institutes
This multifaceted community-based intervention targets Latino youth, ages 14 to 20, at elevated risk for HIV/AIDS. One goal of the program is to increase awareness of the disease by saturating target neighborhoods with public service announcements broadcasting risk reduction messages. In addition, the program aims to reduce infection by encouraging sexually active teens to use condoms. Project messages are reinforced through ongoing activities conducted by specially-trained peer leaders, including workshops in schools, community organizations, and health centers, group discussions in teens' homes, presentations at large community centers, and door-to-door canvassing. At all activities, condoms are available, along with pamphlets explaining their correct use. In a field study of the intervention in Boston, MA, researchers compared the sexual behavior of teens in the target community and a similar, control community. At the 18-month follow-up assessment, the intervention appeared to reduce the incidence of multiple sexual partners among females and delay the onset of sexual activity among males. Click here to view more detailed information on this program.
Point for Point
Investigators: San Francisco AIDS Foundation HIV Prevention Project & The Prevention Point Research Group
Point for Point is a needle exchange intervention designed for implementation in street settings. Needle exchange operates on the premise that increased availability of sterile syringes can reduce the prevalence of needle-sharing among injection drug users (IDUs). Needle sharing, the use of the same syringe by more than one person, is associated with high rates of transmission of infectious diseases, including HIV/AIDS. Point for Point relies on trained volunteers to operate exchange sites at which sterile hypodermic syringes are exchanged for used syringes on a one-for-one basis. Volunteers also distribute condoms and provide exchangers with bleach, alcohol swabs, sterile cotton, and other materials associated with safer drug-injection techniques. Point for Point was evaluated under the name Prevention Point in connection with the Urban Health Study (UHS), a long-term study of the IDU community in San Francisco, CA. Data collected through UHS surveys revealed that Point for Point quickly became the principal source of sterile syringes for San Francisco IDUs, and that IDUs who reported regular use of the needle exchange were significantly less likely to report needle-sharing than IDUs who did not use the needle exchange. Participants also reported a significant drop in the median number of daily injections, and the proportion of respondents who reported their first injection behavior in the previous year dropped significantly. An overall decline in reported needle sharing was also observed (Watters, 1996; Watters, Estillo, Clark and Lorvick, 1994). Click here to view more detailed information on this program.
Portland Women's Health Program
Investigators: Brian W. Weir, MPH, Rosemary Breger, MPH, Kerth O'Brien, PhD, Carol J. Casciato, Ronda S. Bard, PhD, John A. Dougherty, PhD, Michael J. Stark, PhD
Portland Women's Health Program, a one-to-one behavioral intervention, aims to reduce HIV risk behaviors and increase life stability among women who were recently incarcerated. A community health specialist extensively trained in motivational interviewing (MI) techniques meets individually with women during 10 sessions delivered over three months. During program sessions, the health specialist uses MI techniques to empower and encourage women to explore potential positive changes they can make in their lives. The sessions are both directive, since the health specialist guides the conversation toward particular topics, and participant-centered, since the participant's experiences, views, and reluctance or readiness to change are central topics of discussion. All ten of the Portland Women's Health Program sessions address HIV-prevention in addition to life stability issues. Click here to view more detailed information on this program.
Project SAFE (P-SAFE)
Investigators: Tamara Kuhn, Charles Klein, Alejandra Moreno, and Carmela Lomonaco
Project SAFE is a computer-delivered HIV/STI prevention program specifically designed for Latinas available in both English and Spanish. P-SAFE includes videos of individual women speaking candidly about HIV/STI-related topics in their lives and communities, skills instruction by the health educator, groups of women practicing condom skills, and role-play and novela vignettes demonstrating intervention themes.
Project SAFE: Sexual Awareness For Everyone An Intervention to Prevent STDs Among Minority Women
Investigators: Rochelle N. Shain, Reyes Ramos, Sondra T. Perdue, & Edward R. Newton
Developed for use in public health clinics, PROJECT S.A.F.E. is a three session cognitive-behavioral intervention designed to reduce STD infections among Hispanic and African American women. Sessions are designed to facilitate skill development to avoid infections while increasing awareness that STDs (including AIDS) disproportionately affect minority women. The intervention also helps build decision-making and communication skills, and encourages participants to set risk reduction goals. Participants gain mastery through role-play, group discussion, and behavioral skills exercises. The original evaluation, conducted in metropolitan San Antonio, TX, between 1993 and 1994, included 617 Hispanic and African American women. Participants were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (n=313) or the control group (n=304). Intervention group participants took part in three small-group sessions while their control group counterparts received standard STD counseling. Program participants showed a lower rate of infection as well as a better understanding of risky sexual behavior as compared to the control group. Click here to view more detailed information on this program.
Project SMART: AIDS Education for Drug Users in Short-Term Treatment
Investigators: Benjamin Lewis
Developed for use in short-term in-patient drug treatment programs, Project SMART includes two distinct interventions: a two-session informational intervention and a six-session enhanced intervention that includes both informational and behavioral skills training. A trained health educator delivers both interventions. In the informational intervention, participants receive an overview presentation about AIDS, complete homework, and watch condom-use and works-cleaning demonstrations. In the enhanced intervention, participants also participate in role-plays, watch video presentations, and practice condom-use and works-cleaning skills. Click here to view more detailed information on this program.
Prospero Project Condom Study, San Francisco, 1989-1991
Investigators: Dan Waldorf and David Lauderback
The Prospero Project Condom Study, San Francisco, 1989-1991, which was conducted between December 1989 and April 1991, explored condom use in 552 male sex workers in San Francisco - men who are at high risk to contract and spread the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Investigators employed face-to-face interviews to gather detailed information about the conditions (e.g., type of partner, type of sexual activity) under which condoms were and were not used. In addition, the investigators sought to quantify the amount of condom failure (i.e., breakage and/or slippage) in this population. This dataset includes information on 736 variables across 552 cases. Respondents were identified through a combination of methods, including snowball sampling, and represented two types of sex workers, hustlers and call men, who are gay, bisexual, heterosexual, or transvestite/transsexual.