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Hot, Healthy, and Keeping it Up!
Investigators: Kyung-Hee Choi, Steve Lew Eric Vittinghoff, Joseph Catania, Donald Barrett & Thomas Coates
This program is a three-hour, single session, culturally appropriate intervention for use with homosexual Pacific Islander and/or Asian men. The intervention is designed to increase positive ethnic and sexual identity in order to help participants acknowledge HIV risk behaviors by discussing negative experiences of being both Asian or Pacific Islander and homosexual (e.g., lack of social support, racism, homophobia). Guided by the Health Belief Model, the theory of reasoned action, and social cognitive theory, facilitators use interactive and group process techniques to address the following four intervention components: 1) development of positive self-identity and social support; 2) safer sex education; 3) eroticizing safer sex; and 4) negotiating safer sex. Of the 258 participants in the original evaluation, most were about 29 years old, Chinese, college-educated, immigrants. Most had been tested for HIV and had reported multiple partners in the three months prior to the intervention. Results of the evaluation indicate that intervention participants were significantly more knowledgeable about HIV-risk reduction, were significantly more motivated about addressing risk, had significantly fewer partners, and were significantly less likely to report unprotected anal intercourse than counterparts in the control group at three-month follow-up. (Choi et al., 1996). Click here to view more detailed information on this program.
Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills HIV Prevention Program (IMB)
Investigators: Jeffrey Fisher, William A. Fisher, Stephen J. Misovich, & Angela D. Bryan
The goal of the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills HIV Prevention Program (IMB Program) is to reduce high school students' risk of HIV infection. Program objectives include positively influencing students' HIV prevention knowledge, attitudes and norms, increasing students' levels of HIV prevention behavioral skills, and increasing students' levels of HIV preventive behavior. The intervention involves a four-session classroom component to be conducted by trained high school teachers. The IMB Program is based on the Information, Motivation and Behavioral Skills (IMB) model of health behavior change, which assumes that information, motivation and behavioral skills are the fundamental determinants of HIV preventive behavior. An evaluation of the curriculum offered in three intervention formats (classroom-based only, peer-based only, and combination classroom and peer-based delivery) was conducted by the Center for Health/HIV Intervention and Prevention in 1999. Participants were 1,577 students in four inner-city high schools in Connecticut (61% African-American, 28% Hispanic-American, 11% Caucasian, mixed or "other.") The classroom-based HIV prevention education component effectively promoted risk reduction behavior change in these urban high school settings at one year post-intervention. Click here to view more detailed information on this program.
Intervention with Microfinance for AIDS and Gender Equity (IMAGE)
Investigators: Tanya Abramsky, Joanna Busza, John Gear, James Hargreaves, Julia Kim, Mzamani Benjamin Makhubele, Kalipe Mashaba, Linda Morison, Matshilo Motsei, Luceth Ndhlovu, Chris Peters, Godfrey Phetla, John Porter, Paul Pronyk, & Charlotte Watts
IMAGE is comprised of a gender and HIV training curriculum called Sisters-for-Life. A microfinance program augments the curriculum. For the microfinance component, groups of five women receive loans to establish small businesses. Further credit is offered when all women in these solidarity groups repay their loans. Loan centers of approximately 40 women meet fortnightly. Sisters-for-Life consists of two phases. Phase I is a structured series of 10 one-hour participatory training sessions that are integrated into the Loan Center meetings. Phase II moves the participants toward collective action. Natural Leaders are elected by their peers to participate in a one-week training workshop on leadership and community mobilization. Taking these skills back to their respective loan centers, these Leaders are responsible for developing an Action Plan, with the aim of implementing what they regard as appropriate responses to priority issues. Click here to view more detailed information on this program.
Keepin' It R.E.A.L.! A Mother-Adolescent HIV Prevention Program
Investigators: Colleen DiIorio, Frances McCarty, Dongqing Terry Wang, Pamela Denzmore, Ken Resnicow, Anindya K. De, William N. Dudley, PhD
The KEEPIN. IT R.E.A.L.! (Responsible, Empowered, Aware, Living) evaluation tested the effectiveness of two HIV prevention interventions designed for mothers and their adolescents, as compared to a control group. Sites were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: the Social-Cognitive program (SCT--four sites, the focus of this replication kit); another program not included in this kit; or the control condition (four sites). The SCT program was designed to delay initiation of sexual intercourse for those adolescents who were not yet sexually active, and to increase condom use among sexually active participants. SCT involved seven 2-hour meetings conducted over 14 weeks. Participating adolescents (N = 582) were between the ages of 11 and 14 years, mostly male (60%), and African American (97.7%). The number of participating mothers was 470; 110 mothers had more than one adolescent in the study. Assessments were conducted at baseline, and at 4, 12 and 24 months after baseline. At the 24-month assessment, a higher percent of sexually active participants in the SCT groups reported condom use at last sex compared to their control group peers (96% and 85%, respectively), condom use intentions (100% and 94%, respectively), and cessation of sexual activity until they were older (43% and 24%, respectively). For the mothers, their levels of self-efficacy and comfort for talking with their adolescents about sex increased over time. Both mothers and adolescents demonstrated an increase in HIV knowledge. Click here to view more detailed information on this program.
Know the Risks (KTR): An Interactive HIV/AIDS Information and Personal Risk Assessment Center
Investigators: Diana Dull Akers & Tamara Kuhn
With funding from the National Institute of Mental Health, Sociometrics has developed Know the Risks, a computer-based sexual health and HIV/AIDS prevention education application, created in both English and culturally-tailored Spanish language formats. Know the Risks was designed to help support four HIV prevention goals: 1. To empower patients/clinic clients in diverse clinic settings to take a pro-active interest in learning about HIV/AIDS prevention and other sexual health topics; 2. To encourage more discussion of these topics between health providers and the patients/clients they serve; 3. To facilitate increased levels of HIV/AIDS risk screening and testing (referred services or direct) by health providers; and 4. To support the work of HIV/AIDS prevention professionals by providing an innovative tool for helping them to accomplish their objectives. Know the Risks was primarily designed for use in waiting rooms or other common areas of diverse clinic settings. These include doctor’s offices, hospitals, community-based health clinics, college health centers, and HIV/AIDS counseling and testing centers. However, because Know the Risks is a client-directed, stand-alone tool, any setting that supports sexual health education goals (e.g., community centers, residential communities, medical libraries, etc.) may find this application of interest.
Know the Risks/Sexual Health Over 50 (KTR50)
Investigators: Diana Dull Akers & Tamara Kuhn
With funding from the National Institute of Aging, Sociometrics has developed Know the Risks/Sexual Health Over 50 (KTR/50), a computer-based sexual health and HIV/AIDS prevention education application targeting adults aged 50 and older. KTR/50 was designed to help support four HIV prevention goals: To provide age-sensitive, age-targeted HIV/AIDS and sexual health education information to older adults, a population often considered a 'hidden population' in the HIV/AIDS epidemic; To encourage and empower older adults to take a pro-active interest in learning about HIV/AIDS prevention and other sexual health topics; To support and facilitate greater discussion of these topics between health and social service providers and the patients/clients they serve; To disseminate health education content that supports the goal of routine HIV/AIDS risk screening and testing among older adults. KTR/50 is a stand-alone, client-directed application available in both DVD and download formats. It was designed for use in a variety of settings serving adults over 50, including clinic settings (e.g., doctor's offices, hospitals, community based clinics, and HIV/AIDS testing centers) as well as community-based settings that have fruitful opportunities for offering health education resources to older adult clients (e.g., senior centers, community centers, adult residential life communities, etc.) Libraries and other organizations and programs offering health education content may also find this application of value to the clients they serve. Feature 1: KTR/50 Risk SurveyKTR Main Interface KTR/50 offers older adults a voluntary, confidential HIV risk screening survey. The 12-question survey includes 3 demographic questions and 9 HIV risk behavior questions. It should take three to five minutes to complete. The audio-enhanced computer-assisted-survey-interface (CASI) design ensures the survey is simple for those with minimal computer skills. The survey progresses automatically after each answer is selected. Audio options are offered. The KTR/50 introductory tutorial includes support for beginning computer users who may need to brush up on basic navigational instructions prior to taking the survey. Custom Risk Profile After completing the survey, users see a printable one-page Custom Risk Profile on the screen. They have the option to print the profile to take with them or simply view the profile and then exit the program or continue on to the Learning Center. The profile includes a 0-9 risk scoring system with simple scoring feedback, plus a list of recommended Learning Center activities based on their survey answers. Feature 2: Know the Risks/Sexual Health Over 50 Learning CenterSurvey Interface The multimedia Learning Center offers users 13 interactive sexual health and HIV prevention activities specifically designed for adults over 50. Activities range in length from 1-15 minutes (length of activities depends on user pacing and, in many activities, how many topics/features users opt to view). Activities aimed at both general audiences and special focus populations are offered in engaging multimedia formats (videos, games, select-a-topic activities, etc.). All activities are designed with audio narration and have been carefully developed using standards of design for older adults.
Investigators: Seth C. Kalichman
Let’s Chat is a four-session intervention designed for use with same-sex groups of adults with chronic mental illness. Based on the Information-Motivation-Behavioral (IMB) Skills Model, Let’s Chat addresses risk-reduction needs specific to persons with mental illness. In each of the 90-minute sessions, a team of two facilitators conveys important AIDS-prevention information, alternating lectures and video clips with role-play and group-participation activities. Participants discuss sexual pressure and coercion, practice negotiating condom use, and learn the proper method for using both male and female condoms. All four sessions place emphasis on clear, simple messages and useful skills practice. Click here to view more detailed information on this program.
Los Angeles Women's Health Risk Study, 1990
Investigators: David Kanouse
Investigators interviewed a stratified probability sample of 1,024 female street prostitutes in Los Angeles County between May 1990 and February 1991 to study behavior that is linked to transmission of HIV and other STDs. Although the study also collected blood samples from a subsample of 638 women to examine markers for HIV infection, as well as past syphilis and hepatitis B infection, the original investigator did not include blood sample data in this public use dataset. The specific aims of this study were to: develop numerical estimates of the size of the prostitute population in Los Angeles County and its distribution by predominant mode of solicitation of customers; characterize prostitute career patterns; perform HIV antibody testing to determine the prevalence of HIV infection in this population and its subgroups; measure the prevalence and incidence of specific sexual and drug-related risk behaviors and prevention behaviors and determine how these are related to prostitute characteristics and risk and prevention behaviors; and compare the characteristics of the population of prostitutes with those subgroups most likely to be recruited in convenience samples (e.g., from jails or STD clinics). The present study is unique in describing the characteristics, risk behavior and serological status of a probability sample of street prostitutes from a major metropolitan area of the U.S., which is also in AIDS epicenter.
Mujer Segura, Healthy Woman
Investigators: Thomas Patterson, Brent Mausbach, Remedios Lozada, Hugo Staines-Orozco, Shirley Semple, Miguel Fraga-Vallejo, Prisci Orozovich, Daniela Abramovitz, Adela de la Torre, Hortensia Amaro, Gustavo Martinez, Carlos Magis-Rodriguez, & Steffanie Strathdee
The Mujer Segura Program aims to increase female sex workers' use of condoms during all sex exchanges. The program demonstrated increases in the total number of protected sex acts and decreases in overall sexually transmitted infection (including HIV) incidence. The program is composed of one session, lasting approximately 35 minutes. During this session, the counselor meets one-on-one with the individual participant and through the use of Motivational Interviewing techniques, assesses sexual risk behaviors; increases awareness of challenges related to condom use; and helps the participant develop solutions to increase safer sex practices. The counselor distributes free condoms and lubricant to all participants. Supervisors meet weekly with the program counselors to discuss program implementation and address any issues that may The Mujer Segura Program was originally implemented in two Mexican border cities of the United States with female sex workers. Although this program was specifically designed to increase condom use during sex exchanges, it may be suitable for use with other at-risk groups who engage in risky sexual behaviors. Click here to view more detailed information on this program.
Investigators: Josefina J. Card, Tabitha Benner, Amie Ashcraft, Tamara Kuhn, Barbara Lee Federle, Gina Wingood, Ralph DiClemente, Deja L. Hunger, and Tanisha Grimes
SiHLE is an interactive, computer-based intervention addressing the HIV/AIDS and STI prevention needs of sexually active, African-American young women ages 14-18. The product is based on SiHLE: Health Workshops for Young Black Women, a popular group level intervention in CDC.s Diffusion of Evidence-based Intervention (DEBI) library and Sociometric's Program Archive on Sexuality, Health, and Adolescence (PASHA). The original SiHLE program consists of four, 3-hour social-skills building sessions and is grounded in social cognitive theory and the theory of gender and power. Under the leadership of one adult and two peer facilitators, participants discuss ethnic and gender pride, risk reduction strategies (including correct and consistent condom use), negotiating safer sex, and healthy relationships and their relation to practicing safer sex. Multimedia SiHLE explores these same issues through two, one-hour sessions that combine interactive learning, videos, games and quizzes to help viewers increase and reinforce their risk-reduction awareness, knowledge and skills. Users interact with the computer-based intervention individually at their own speed, and only minimal staff participation is needed to implement the program.