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State-Wide Indian Drug Prevention Program
Investigators: Steven P. Schinke
The program is a drug prevention program, designed to combine a social learning based intervention with bicultural competence theory. Bicultural competence encompasses skills that can enable American-Indian people to adapt the roles in which they were raised with the culture in which they are surrounded. The three subgoals of bicultural competence, knowledge and practice in communication, coping, and discrimination skills, provide the theoretical foundation for intervention to prevent substance abuse with American-Indian youth. The original program was designed primarily for fourth and fifth grade Native American/Alaskan Native students in s classroom setting, but it can easily be modified for higher-grade levels and other adolescents. The curriculum can be implemented in a wide variety of settings, including public schools, tribal schools, tribal community centers, and student retreats. The intervention is administered in 15 one-hour sessions. Click here to view more detailed information on this program.
Study to Reduce Intravenous Exposures (STRIVE)
Investigators: Steffanie Strathdee, Ph.D., Sebastian Booner, Ph.D., Elizabeth Golub, Ph.D., Mary Latka, M.P.H., Ph.D., Farzana Kapadia, Ph.D., Holly Hagan, M.P.H., Ph.D., Jennifer Campbell, & Richard Garfein, Ph.D., M.P.H
STRIVE is a group-level, clinic-based, behavioral intervention that aims to reduce risky distributive injection practices (e.g., syringe lending and unsafe drug preparation) among young injection drug users who are HCV positive. During six 2-hour sessions, two trained health advisors promote group cohesion and support peer education within the STRIVE group. The health advisors encourage behavior change by teaching peer-education tactics and risk reduction skills. The STRIVE program increases participants. HCV knowledge and risk awareness, problem-solving and risk-reduction skills, and supports sustained behavior change. The effectiveness of the STRIVE program was evaluated using a randomized trial design with a time-equivalent attention-control group. Participants included 418 HCV-positive injection drug users aged 18 to 35 years in three US cities. Participants reported their injection-related behaviors at baseline, and at three- and six-month follow-ups. Compared with the control group, intervention group participants reported a 26% relative reduction of distributive risk behaviors at three months and six months, but were no more likely to cite their HIV-positive status as a reason for refraining from syringe lending. Effects were strongest among intervention group participants who had known their HCV-positive status for at least six months. Peer mentoring and self-efficacy were significantly increased among intervention group participants, and intervention effects were mediated through self-efficacy. Click here to view more detailed information on this program.
Investigators: Russel S. Falck, Robert G. Carlson, & Harvey A. Siegal
Turning Point includes two separate interventions designed to reduce the frequency and probability of injection-risk behavior among IDUs not participating in drug abuse treatment programs. The basic intervention consists of two sessions. In the first session, participants undergo HIV antibody tests and receive pre-test counseling. In the second session, a counselor-educator provides detailed information about HIV and HIV transmission and guides the participant group through activities intended to teach behavioral strategies for avoiding exposure to HIV. Participants in the enhanced intervention complete the basic intervention and attend three additional sessions, in which they address HIV/AIDS pathology, drug addiction, and safer sex practices. Both interventions employ videotape presentations, role-play, hands-on demonstrations, and print materials. The enhanced intervention also employs slide presentations, self-assessment tests, and lecture/discussion. The program's effectiveness was evaluated in Dayton and Columbus, OH. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the two interventions. Surveys were administered to both groups at enrollment and six months after the intervention. A majority of participants in both the standard and enhanced interventions reported safer needle practices at follow-up. Although no difference in needle risk was observed between intervention groups when all subjects were included in analyses, participants in the enhanced intervention who reported unsafe needle practices at enrollment were significantly more likely to report safer needle practices at follow-up than similar participants in the standard intervention (Siegal, Falck, Carlson and Wang, 1995). Click here to view more detailed information on this program.