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Health Behavior Study of Detroit Minority Youth, 1991
Investigators: Kathleen Ford and Anne Norris
Low income minority urban youth have been identified as a group for whom there is current concern about HIV transmission. The aim of this study was to evaluate AIDS knowledge, perception of risk, and risk behaviors related to sex in a sample of urban, low income, African American and Hispanic adolescents and young adults. The study was conducted between February and July of 1991. Data were obtained from a household probability sample of 1,435 individuals. Completed interviews included 726 African American (324 males, 402 females) and 709 Hispanic (359 males, 350 females) adolescents and young adults from low income areas of Detroit, Michigan. Interviewers were hired and trained specifically for the study. Over 95% of the 60 interviewers employed were minority residents of Detroit. Interviewer training consisted of instruction of general interviewing techniques, as well as instruction relevant to obtaining drug and sexual histories. The study questionnaire was developed through pilot testing using open-ended questions, consultation with youth and youth service providers, and formal pretesting. The final questionnaire consisted of close-ended questions and required about one hour to administer. About 108 of the interviews were conducted using a Spanish language questionnaire. The questionnaire assessed general knowledge of AIDS transmission; knowledge of routes of sexual transmission (both heterosexual and homosexual); respondents' sexual behavior, number of sexual partners, and condom use; and perceived susceptibility to AIDS infection.
Health Behavior Study of Detroit Minority Youth, 1991
Investigators: Kathleen Ford & Anne Norris
Low income minority urban youth have been identified as a group for whom there is current concern about HIV transmission. The aim of this study was to evaluate AIDS knowledge, perception of risk, and risk behaviors related to sex in a sample of urban, low income, African American and Hispanic adolescents and young adults. The study was conducted between February and July of 1991. Data were obtained from a household probability sample of 1,435 individuals. Completed interviews included 726 African American (324 males, 402 females) and 709 Hispanic (359 males, 350 females) adolescents and young adults from low income areas of Detroit, Michigan. The data set contains 1,106 variables. Interviewers were hired and trained specifically for the study. Over 95% of the 60 interviewers employed were minority residents of Detroit. Interviewer training consisted of instruction of general interviewing techniques, as well as instruction relevant to obtaining drug and sexual histories. The study questionnaire was developed through pilot testing using open-ended questions, consultation with youth and youth service providers, and formal pre-testing. The final questionnaire consisted of close-ended questions and required about one hour to administer. About 108 of the interviews were conducted using a Spanish language questionnaire. The questionnaire assessed general knowledge of AIDS transmission; knowledge of routes of sexual transmission (both heterosexual and homosexual); respondents' sexual behavior, number of sexual partners, and condom use; and perceived susceptibility to AIDS infection.
Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (Hispanic EPESE), Waves I-IV, 1993-2001
Investigators: Kyriakos S. Markides & Laura A. Ray
The Hispanic EPESE is a longitudinal study aimed at obtaining a representative sample of community-dwelling Mexican American elderly residing in the five Southwestern states of Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado, and California. The primary purpose of the study was to provide estimates of the prevalence of key physical health conditions, mental health conditions, and functional impairments in older Mexican Americans and compare this prevalence with that in other populations. Trained interviewers collected data on major chronic conditions, functional disabilities, mental health, family relations, migration history, access to health services, and related variables through personal household interviews with the subjects. The baseline interviews were conducted in 1993 and 1994; follow-up interviews of the same subjects were conducted at two (1995-1996), five (1998-1999), seven (2000-2001) and ten (2004-2005) years. In addition, the investigators wanted to study predictors and correlates of these health outcomes cross-sectionally. A two- year follow-up was requested in order to examine predictors of mortality, changes in health outcomes, institutionalization and other changes in living arrangements, and changes in life situations and quality of life.
HoMBReS: Hombres Manteniendo Bienestar y Relaciones Saludables (Men Maintaining Wellbeing and Healthy Relationships)
Investigators: Scott D. Rhodes, PhD, MPH, CHES, Kenneth C. Hergenrather, PhD, MSEd, MRC, Fred R. Bloom, PhD, Jami S. Leichliter, PhD, Jaime Montano
HoMBReS is a lay health advisor (LHA), community-based, behavioral intervention that aims to increase condom use and HIV testing among Latino men by working with sports teams. Each team selects a leader to serve as an LHA, known as a Navegante (Navigator or Health Navigator), who receives a 4-session, 16-hour training from the HoMBReS facilitator in order to become a health advisor, opinion leader, and community advocate. He may then provide his teammates with information and referrals to increase their knowledge about HIV and STI transmission, prevention, and testing, and increase their condom use skills. In addition, the Navegantes advocate positive and reframe negative sociocultural expectations about what it means to be a man, and they work toward structural changes in their communities. Click here to view more detailed information on this program.
Hot, Healthy, and Keeping it Up!
Investigators: Kyung-Hee Choi, Steve Lew Eric Vittinghoff, Joseph Catania, Donald Barrett & Thomas Coates
This program is a three-hour, single session, culturally appropriate intervention for use with homosexual Pacific Islander and/or Asian men. The intervention is designed to increase positive ethnic and sexual identity in order to help participants acknowledge HIV risk behaviors by discussing negative experiences of being both Asian or Pacific Islander and homosexual (e.g., lack of social support, racism, homophobia). Guided by the Health Belief Model, the theory of reasoned action, and social cognitive theory, facilitators use interactive and group process techniques to address the following four intervention components: 1) development of positive self-identity and social support; 2) safer sex education; 3) eroticizing safer sex; and 4) negotiating safer sex. Of the 258 participants in the original evaluation, most were about 29 years old, Chinese, college-educated, immigrants. Most had been tested for HIV and had reported multiple partners in the three months prior to the intervention. Results of the evaluation indicate that intervention participants were significantly more knowledgeable about HIV-risk reduction, were significantly more motivated about addressing risk, had significantly fewer partners, and were significantly less likely to report unprotected anal intercourse than counterparts in the control group at three-month follow-up. (Choi et al., 1996). Click here to view more detailed information on this program.
Mujer Segura, Healthy Woman
Investigators: Thomas Patterson, Brent Mausbach, Remedios Lozada, Hugo Staines-Orozco, Shirley Semple, Miguel Fraga-Vallejo, Prisci Orozovich, Daniela Abramovitz, Adela de la Torre, Hortensia Amaro, Gustavo Martinez, Carlos Magis-Rodriguez, & Steffanie Strathdee
The Mujer Segura Program aims to increase female sex workers' use of condoms during all sex exchanges. The program demonstrated increases in the total number of protected sex acts and decreases in overall sexually transmitted infection (including HIV) incidence. The program is composed of one session, lasting approximately 35 minutes. During this session, the counselor meets one-on-one with the individual participant and through the use of Motivational Interviewing techniques, assesses sexual risk behaviors; increases awareness of challenges related to condom use; and helps the participant develop solutions to increase safer sex practices. The counselor distributes free condoms and lubricant to all participants. Supervisors meet weekly with the program counselors to discuss program implementation and address any issues that may The Mujer Segura Program was originally implemented in two Mexican border cities of the United States with female sex workers. Although this program was specifically designed to increase condom use during sex exchanges, it may be suitable for use with other at-risk groups who engage in risky sexual behaviors. Click here to view more detailed information on this program.
Multimedia WiLLOW: HIV Transmission Reduction Among African American Women Living with HIV
Investigators: Josefina J. Card, Amie Ashcraft, John Wundes, Nikia Braxton, Gina Wingood, & Ralph DiClemente
Multimedia WILLOW in an interactive computer-based intervention designed for African American women living with HIV that is gender relevant and culturally sensitive, based on the effective group intervention WiLLOW. The intervention incorporates elements of sexual risk reduction to reduce STI/HIV sexual transmission and to enhance psychosocial mediators and structural factors associated with preventive behaviors. Designed for implementation in clinical or community-based settings, the two-session interactive, intervention emphasizes ethnic and gender pride, elements of sexual risk reduction, sexual negotiation skills, proper condom use, and development of partner norms supportive of consistent condom use. Each session offers multimedia learning, games and quizzes to help viewers increase and reinforce their risk-reduction awareness, knowledge, and skills. Women interact with the computer-based intervention individually and at their own speed. Only minimal staff participation is needed to implement Multimedia WiLLOW. A recent study demonstrated the efficacy of Multimedia WiLLOW. The evaluation study (N=168) used a randomized controlled design to examine Multimedia WILLOW.s efficacy by assessing participants. Multimedia WILLOW participants, compared to the control condition, had a significantly higher percentage of condom protected sex acts in the past 30 days (90% vs. 80%, p=.001). This greater condom use occurred with both HIV-negative (90% vs. 80%, p=.037) and HIV-positive (100% v. 70%, P=.011) partners. Women receiving Multimedia WILLOW were also more likely to report 100% condom use (OR = .10; p=.003) and had a lower adjusted mean number of unprotected vaginal and anal sex acts in the past 30 days (.31 vs. 2.33, P=.002). In comparison to women in the control condition, Multimedia WILLOW participants reported significantly higher levels of communication with their partners on HIV risk reduction practices (11.5 vs. 10.8, p=.052); greater sexual communication self-efficacy (36.1 vs. 34.0, p=.003); and less self-reported stress (32.3 vs. 34.3, p=.003). Participants rated the computer-delivered intervention more favorably than the standard of care condition in the four principal satisfaction categories -- enjoyment (4.69 v. 4.26, p
Nashville General Hospital Comprehensive Child Care Project 1974-1976: Selected Variables
Investigators: Howard Sandler
This study examined the child-rearing attitudes, perceptions of infant temperament, and mother-infant interactional behavior of primiparous adolescent mothers in comparison to mothers having their first infant post-adolescence. The newborn behavior of the infants was also examined. Data were obtained from the medical records of the mothers; from measures of maternal attitudes, maternal perceptions of infant temperament, and infant behavioral characteristics; and from an observational system. Data from the observational system were not included in the file archived for public use because they were available for only one- sixth of the sample and because they had already been subjected to detailed analysis by the principal investigators. Note for users of DAAPPP Data Sets #01-B1DAAPPP data sets 01 through B1 are comprised of a User's Guide, SPSS syntax files (*.SPS or *.SPX) and raw data files only. Most of these datasets contain SPSS syntax files that use Job Control Language (JCL) from 1980s versions of SPSS-X. Because the syntax is old, the syntax files require editing to conform to the current syntax standards used by SPSS/Windows or SPSS/Unix. If you require technical assistance in using or editing these syntax files, please contact Sociometrics' Data Support Group at 800.846.3475 or firstname.lastname@example.org.
Nia: A Group-Level Intervention with African American Men Who Have Sex with Women
Investigators: Seth Kalichman, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Southeast HIV/AIDS Research and AIDS Survival Project, & the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Nia is a group-level, video-based intervention with African American men 18 years and older, with at least six hours of content. While the original researcher split the content into two, three-hour sessions, the intervention can also be conducted as three or four sessions. The goal of the Nia intervention is to reduce sexual risk behavior among African American men who have sex with women. The sessions create a context through which men can do the following: Learn new information and affirm existing correct knowledge about HIV/AIDS, Examine their own sexual risks, Build motivation and skills to reduce their risks, and Receive feedback from others. Nia sessions are interactive meetings that have both an educational and an entertaining aspect. In addition, Nia uses factors, such as male pride, racial and sexual identity, receiving and giving respect, and maintaining sexual pleasure while reducing risk, to reinforce procedures for risk reduction. A male facilitator helps create an environment where the men are comfortable learning, while a female facilitator is present to assist with practice of making and communicating safer sex decisions and to help challenge and change negative attitudes towards women. Nia groups can be held in a variety of settings, as long as they are conducted in a private room where the men will feel comfortable enough to participate.
Optimizing Partner Notification (OPeN)
Investigators: Tracey E. Wilson PhD, Matthew Hogben, PhD, Nicole Liddon, PhD, William M. McCormack, MD, Steve R. Rubin, & Michael A. Augenbraun, MD
OPEN, a clinic-based patient-centered program, promotes sexually transmitted infection (STI) partner notification in urban, minority populations with high rates of infection. A trained health educator delivers OPEN in 2 one-on-one counseling sessions. The first session (which lasts approximately 30 minutes) is delivered after the initial STI diagnosis, and the second session (which lasts about 10 minutes) is optional, and occurs roughly four weeks later, either in person or by phone. During the first session, the health educator engages in a discussion with the participant about the participant's risky sexual behaviors, and helps the participant to identify potential sexual partners needing notification of the STI. Then the participant and health educator develop a notification plan, and work on skills to improve sexual partner notification through role playing. At the end of the session the participant completes and signs a notification contract. During the second session, the health educator reviews with the participant any progress made on notification, and together they discuss any barriers encountered in notifying partners. Click here to view more detailed information on this program.