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Investigators: Don C. Des Jarlais, Cathy Casriel, Ray Rodriguez, Andrew Rosenblum, Samuel Friedman, Bruce Stepherson & Elizabeth Khuri
Sniffer is designed to prevent intranasal heroin users from making the transition to injection drug use, and to prevent those who have used injection drugs in the past from returning to that mode of use. Participants attend four 90-120 minute sessions in which didactic materials, group discussions, and situational role play scenarios are employed to communicate information about AIDS, drug use, sexual risk behavior, and drug abuse treatment options. The intervention also seeks to reduce non-injection use of illicit drugs, but advocates harm reduction practices and treatment rather than condemning the behavior of group members who use illicit non-injection drugs. The program's effectiveness was evaluated in a study of 104 intranasal drug users in New York City, each of whom had injected heroin less than 60 times in the previous two years and was HIV and/or hepatitis B negative. Participants were recruited and assigned to test and control groups. All subjects received information about AIDS prior to enrollment. Follow-up interviews at roughly nine months after enrollment collected information about drug use and sexual behavior as well as attitudes towards AIDS. Participation in the intervention was associated with a significantly lower probability of self-reported injection drug use and increased condom use during the follow-up period. (Des Jarlais, Casriel, Friedman and Rosenblum, 1995; Casriel et al., 1990). Click here to view more detailed information on this program.
SiHLE: Health Workshops for Young Black Women
Investigators: Ralph DiClemente, Gina Wingood, Kathy Harrington, Delia Lang, Susan Davies, Edward Hook III, M. Kim Oh, Richard Crosby, Vicki Stover Hertzberg, Angelita Gordon, James Hardin, Shan Parker, & Alyssa Robillard
SiHLE (Sistas, Informing, Healing, Living, Empowering) was developed to address the STI/HIV/AIDS prevention needs of African-American adolescent girls. Research has shown that this subgroup of the general population is at higher risk than their White or Hispanic peers. SiHLE was originally implemented in the South, where adolescent HIV prevalence was higher than any other geographic region in the U.S. Participants were girls seeking health services at community health agencies. Eliglible participants were African American between the ages of 14 and 18 who had engaged in vaginal intercourse within the previous six months. At baseline, 522 girls, aged 14-18, completed the baseline survey and were randomized into either the HIV-prevention intervention (n=251) or the general health control group (n=271). The HIV-prevention intervention was grounded in social cognitive theory and the theory of gender and power. Participants explored issues related to ethnic and gender pride, risk reduction strategies (including correct and consistent condom use), negotiating safer sex, and healthy relationships as they relate to practicing safer sex. At the six-month follow-up, intervention girls reported using condoms more consistently in the previous 30 days than did their control group counterparts (intervention, 75.3% vs. control, 58.2%). At the 12-month follow-up, intervention girls reported more consistent condom use both in the previous 30 days (intervention, 73.3% vs. control, 56.5%) and during the entire 12-month review period (adjusted odds ratio, 2.30; 95% CI, 1.51-3.5; Phere to view more detailed information on this program.
Investigators: Josefina J. Card, Tabitha Benner, Amie Ashcraft, Tamara Kuhn, Barbara Lee Federle, Gina Wingood, Ralph DiClemente, Deja L. Hunger, and Tanisha Grimes
SiHLE is an interactive, computer-based intervention addressing the HIV/AIDS and STI prevention needs of sexually active, African-American young women ages 14-18. The product is based on SiHLE: Health Workshops for Young Black Women, a popular group level intervention in CDC.s Diffusion of Evidence-based Intervention (DEBI) library and Sociometric's Program Archive on Sexuality, Health, and Adolescence (PASHA). The original SiHLE program consists of four, 3-hour social-skills building sessions and is grounded in social cognitive theory and the theory of gender and power. Under the leadership of one adult and two peer facilitators, participants discuss ethnic and gender pride, risk reduction strategies (including correct and consistent condom use), negotiating safer sex, and healthy relationships and their relation to practicing safer sex. Multimedia SiHLE explores these same issues through two, one-hour sessions that combine interactive learning, videos, games and quizzes to help viewers increase and reinforce their risk-reduction awareness, knowledge and skills. Users interact with the computer-based intervention individually at their own speed, and only minimal staff participation is needed to implement the program.
Study to Reduce Intravenous Exposures (STRIVE)
Investigators: Steffanie Strathdee, Ph.D., Sebastian Booner, Ph.D., Elizabeth Golub, Ph.D., Mary Latka, M.P.H., Ph.D., Farzana Kapadia, Ph.D., Holly Hagan, M.P.H., Ph.D., Jennifer Campbell, & Richard Garfein, Ph.D., M.P.H
STRIVE is a group-level, clinic-based, behavioral intervention that aims to reduce risky distributive injection practices (e.g., syringe lending and unsafe drug preparation) among young injection drug users who are HCV positive. During six 2-hour sessions, two trained health advisors promote group cohesion and support peer education within the STRIVE group. The health advisors encourage behavior change by teaching peer-education tactics and risk reduction skills. The STRIVE program increases participants. HCV knowledge and risk awareness, problem-solving and risk-reduction skills, and supports sustained behavior change. The effectiveness of the STRIVE program was evaluated using a randomized trial design with a time-equivalent attention-control group. Participants included 418 HCV-positive injection drug users aged 18 to 35 years in three US cities. Participants reported their injection-related behaviors at baseline, and at three- and six-month follow-ups. Compared with the control group, intervention group participants reported a 26% relative reduction of distributive risk behaviors at three months and six months, but were no more likely to cite their HIV-positive status as a reason for refraining from syringe lending. Effects were strongest among intervention group participants who had known their HCV-positive status for at least six months. Peer mentoring and self-efficacy were significantly increased among intervention group participants, and intervention effects were mediated through self-efficacy. Click here to view more detailed information on this program.
Intervention with Microfinance for AIDS and Gender Equity (IMAGE)
Investigators: Tanya Abramsky, Joanna Busza, John Gear, James Hargreaves, Julia Kim, Mzamani Benjamin Makhubele, Kalipe Mashaba, Linda Morison, Matshilo Motsei, Luceth Ndhlovu, Chris Peters, Godfrey Phetla, John Porter, Paul Pronyk, & Charlotte Watts
IMAGE is comprised of a gender and HIV training curriculum called Sisters-for-Life. A microfinance program augments the curriculum. For the microfinance component, groups of five women receive loans to establish small businesses. Further credit is offered when all women in these solidarity groups repay their loans. Loan centers of approximately 40 women meet fortnightly. Sisters-for-Life consists of two phases. Phase I is a structured series of 10 one-hour participatory training sessions that are integrated into the Loan Center meetings. Phase II moves the participants toward collective action. Natural Leaders are elected by their peers to participate in a one-week training workshop on leadership and community mobilization. Taking these skills back to their respective loan centers, these Leaders are responsible for developing an Action Plan, with the aim of implementing what they regard as appropriate responses to priority issues. Click here to view more detailed information on this program.
Sexual Health and Adolescent Risk Prevention (SHARP) Training Modules
Investigators: Emily Newman and Josefina J. Card
These multimedia, interactive training modules will help you train for and implement the Sexual Health and Adolescent Risk Prevention (SHARP). SHARP is an intensive, interactive single-session (divided into five sections) intervention lasting 3-4 hours that incorporates videos, lecture, group discussion and activities. The groups are organized by gender, either all male or all female, with no more than 10 per session (but on average, the ideal number per session is between 3-5 participants per session). Overall SHARP program goals are to deepen STI/HIV knowledge, improve correct condom use, reduce sexual risks and alcohol use and set long-term goals to utilize knowledge and skills learned during the session. The SHARP training contains 9 modules and covers important information and skills for facilitators. The modules include videos, quizzes, and interactive learning exercises. Over the course of the training, the modules cover topics such as: program background and information; the original implementation(s) of the program; motivational interviewing skills; and facilitation tips and responsibilities.
Rikers Health Advocacy Program (RHAP)
Investigators: Stephen Magura, Janet Shapiro, & Sung-Yeon Kang
This program, originally developed for use with incarcerated male adolescent drug users between 16 and 18 years of age, consists of four one hour small group sessions focusing on health education issues, particularly HIV/AIDS. Adapting techniques of Problem Solving Therapy, the facilitator guides eight-person groups in discussing the following topics: general health, HIV and AIDS, drug abuse and its consequences, sexual behavior, health and AIDS-risk behaviors, and strategies for seeking health and social services. Active learning is emphasized, with opportunities for youths to define high-risk attitudes and behaviors, suggest alternative actions, and engage in role play and rehearsal activities. A field study of the curriculum compared the attitudes and behaviors of RHAP participants with those of a control group of teens, selected from a waiting list for the program. Both samples were predominantly African-American and Hispanic. Following the intervention, program participants were more likely to use condoms during intercourse, compared to the comparison group of teens. RHAP is supported by the Office of Adolescent Health (OAH)'s Teen Pregnancy Prevention (TPP) program as an EBI that is medically accurate, age appropriate, and has proven through rigorous evaluation to prevent teen pregnancy and/or associated sexual risk behaviors. Click here to view more detailed information on this program.
Youth AIDS Prevention Project (YAPP)
Investigators: Susan Levy, Brian Flay, & Arden Handler
Originally designed for African-American youth, YAPP aims to prevent STDs, HIV/AIDS, and substance abuse among high-risk junior high school students. Guiding the program is the social influence model of behavioral change, which targets teens' knowledge, attitudes, intentions, and behaviors regarding high-risk activities. The intervention includes ten sessions for 7th grade students, delivered in regularly scheduled health or science classes, and a five-part booster session offered one year later, when the teens have entered 8th grade. Classes cover transmission and prevention of STDs and HIV/AIDS, the importance of using condoms for those who choose to have sex, and the development of decision-making and resistance/negotiation skills. In addition to lectures and class discussions, active learning is emphasized, with opportunities for students to participate in small group exercises and role plays. There are also homework activities and opportunities for parental involvement. A field study of the intervention was conducted in fifteen high-risk school districts in Chicago. Research focused on the group of students who first became sexually active during the study period. Following the booster session, these students were more likely than a control group of peers to report using condoms with foam; they also expressed greater intention to use condoms with foam in the future. Click here to view more detailed information on this program.
AIDS Risk Reduction Education and Skills Training Program (ARREST)
Investigators: Michele D. Kipke
Principles of the health belief model and social learning theory form the conceptual framework for this program, together with strategies previously found to be effective in changing such adolescent health-risk behaviors as cigarette smoking and early pregnancy. Originally designed for teens between 12 and 16 years of age, the intervention includes three 90-minute, small group sessions, in which participants receive five forms of assistance: (1) information about the transmission and prevention of HIV/AIDS; (2) instruction in purchasing and using condoms with spermicide; (3) guidance in self-assessment of risk behaviors; (4) training in decision-making, communication, and assertiveness skills; and (5) peer group support for HIV/AIDS prevention and risk reduction. In addition to lectures and modeling by instructors, teens complete role plays, skill-building exercises, and homework activities. A field study of the program was conducted with 87 African-American and Latino youths, who were recruited from three New York City community-based organizations providing alternative education and after-school programs for high-risk teens. Comparing four week follow-up measures of program participants with a control group of peers, participants showed significant gains in knowledge and attitudes about AIDS, as well as in sexual refusal and negotiation skills. However, no differences were found between the groups' risk-related sexual behaviors. Click here to view more detailed information on this program.
AIDS Prevention and Health Promotion among Women
Investigators: Stevan Hobfoll, Anita Jackson, Justin Lavin, & James Shepherd
AIDS Prevention and Health Promotion among Women is designed to assist participants between 16 and 29 years of age in developing and following a sound sexual health plan. Based on the concepts of empowerment, group social support and culturally sensitive skill building, this program comprises four 1 1/2- to 2-hour small (2-8 participant) group sessions conducted over the course of three months. Video segments promote group discussion, spark group role plays and engage participants in cognitive rehearsal and guided exercises designed to encourage healthy choices about one's body and sexuality. Specifically, this program encourages women to think about the physical and emotional consequences of unsafe sex. It helps them achieve a sense of mastery and positive expectations when discussing sexual history, HIV/AIDS testing, monogamy, spermicide and condom use, and other health-related concerns with their partners. In addition, the program teaches participants how to effectively negotiate safer sex with one's partner and maintain safer sex goals. This program was field tested with pregnant low-income African-American and white women who were using medical center obstetrics services in Akron, Ohio. Compared to control groups, participants showed significant and sustained increases in HIV/AIDS knowledge, safer sex goals, and safer-sex behaviors, including spermicide and condom purchases and use. Click here to view more detailed information on this program.