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Reach for Health: A School-Sponsored Community Youth Service Intervention for Middle School Students
Investigators: Lydia O'Donnell, Alexi San Doval, Richard Duran, Deborah Haber, Rebecca Atnafou, Patricia Piessens, & Renee F. Wilson-Simmons, Ann Stueve, Joseph H. Pleck, Norma Johnson, Uda Grant, Helen Murray
The REACH FOR HEALTH COMMUNITY YOUTH SERVICES PROGRAM (RFH-CYS) targets African-American and Hispanic youth living in urban areas. REACH FOR HEALTH combines a classroom teaching component with community service work. The intervention, as implemented, provides opportunities for middle school students to participate in service activities within their communities while simultaneously reducing early and unprotected sexual activity. The intervention was initially delivered in 1994 to two large middle schools in Brooklyn, NY; one school was designated as the intervention school, the other as the control. A total of 68 classrooms participated in the initial implementation. In the control school, 33 classrooms (584 students) received the standard New York City health education program, which includes some mandated lessons on drugs and AIDS. Within the intervention school, 22 classrooms (222 students) were randomly assigned to receive core RFH curriculum (classroom component only). The remaining 13 intervention classrooms (255 students) received the enhanced RFH plus Community Youth Services program (RFH-CYS). Bi-lingual and special education classes were included from both school sites. At follow-up six months later, reports of sexual activity were higher across the sample. However, students in the control condition showed greater increases in risk behavior (ever had sex, recent sex, recent sex without condom, recent sex without birth control) than did their peers in the treatment conditions. In contrast, students in both intervention conditions showed increases in their use of STD protection and birth control. Also noteworthy are the findings that eighth graders and special education students showed the greatest improvement. Click here to view more detailed information on this program.
Adolescent Women's Contraceptive Decision Making Project, Baltimore City, 1988
Investigators: Carol Weisman and Stacey Plichta
The Adolescent Women's Contraceptive Decision-Making Project, Baltimore City, 1988 is a six-month, longitudinal study that explores the use of contraceptives among adolescent women. The objective of the study was to determine whether consistency of contraceptive use is associated with the young woman's social network (family, friends, and sexual partners) and their attitudes towards pregnancy and contraception. Respondents were surveyed at three points in time: At baseline, at 3 months, and at 6 months. A total of 430 cases and 2,678 variables are included in this study. Other topics addressed in the study include: demographics (household characteristics/composition, race, education, employment, religion, etc.); contraceptive behavior; and attitudes toward pregnancy and contraception.
National Health and Social Life Survey, 1992
Investigators: Edward O. Laumann, Robert T. Michaels, John H. Gagnon, & Stuart Michaels
The 1992 National Health and Social Life Survey (NHSLS) is the most comprehensive representative survey to date of sexual behavior in the United States general population. Conducted by a research team centered at the University of Chicago, the NHSLS was designed not only to determine the prevalence of various sexual practices, but also to examine the social and psychological contexts in which those practices occur. The NHSLS dataset contains information on 1,604 variables gathered from interviews with a national probability sample of 3,432 American men and women between the ages of 18 and 59. The study explores the extent to which sexual conduct and general attitudes toward sexuality are influenced by gender, age, marital status, and other demographic characteristics. Among the numerous topics covered by the NHSLS are early sexual experiences, masturbation, contraception and fertility, sexual abuse, coercion, sexual health, satisfaction, sexual fantasy, sexual dysfunction and homosexuality. Demographic information was collected on race, religious affiliation, education, and income.
National Survey of Adolescent Males-1988 and 1990-91
Investigators: Freya L. Sonenstein, Joseph H. Pleck, & Leighton Ku
The National Survey of Adolescent Males 1988 and 1990-91 (NSAM) is a two-wave, longitudinal study conducted between 1988 and 1991. The survey followed young men from adolescence, the period of initiation of sexual activity and other risk behaviors, into the beginning of young adulthood, a time when sexual activity is often at its highest. This dataset includes data from both Wave 1 (1988) and Wave 2 (1990-91) of the survey. In 1988, a nationally representative sample of 1,880 never-married, non-institutionalized males ages 15 to 19 living in the contiguous United States was surveyed. The original sample of 1,880 males was drawn as a multistage area probability sample that oversampled for Blacks and Hispanics. The study's primary objective was to determine adolescent males' behaviors, education and knowledge concerning human sexuality, contraception, and sexually transmitted diseases. Wave 1 data were collected between April and December 1988. The primary mode of data collection was face-to-face interviews. The most sensitive topics (e.g., substance use, risky sexual behaviors) were assessed with confidential, written self-administered questionnaires. Extensive personal histories of sexual activity and contraception use were gathered, as well as respondents' personal perceptions of the various costs and benefits of contraceptive use and fathering children. Information on school attendance and recent employment history were also included. Wave 2 of NSAM, which is also referred to as the Follow-up Survey of Young Men (FSAM), was conducted between November 1990 and March 1991, when respondents were generally between the ages of 17 and 22. Of those respondents that participated in Wave 1, the follow-up rate was 89 percent (N=1,676). Data collection procedures were similar to that of Wave 1, with the use of face-to-face interviews and self-administered questionnaires.
National Survey of Men, 1991
Investigators: Koray Tanfer
The 1991 National Survey of Men (NSM-I) was conducted between March 1991 and January 1992, under a grant from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, to examine issues related to sexual behavior and condom use among a national household probability sample of males aged 20-39. The NSM-I was intended to serve as the baseline survey for a longitudinal study of this group of U.S. men. Data collection and processing were carried out by the Institute for Survey Research at Temple University in Philadelphia. In-person interviews were conducted using a standard questionnaire with 3,321 eligible males. The survey questionnaire assessed information regarding respondents' personal background; sexual initiation and current exposure; current wife or partner; previous marital relationships; non-marital sexual partners; nonsexual romantic partners; health and risktaking behavior; attitudes, perceptions and knowledge regarding health and contraception; and condom use. A self-administered questionnaire, which assessed self-esteem, locus of control, and attitudes toward marriage, was also completed by respondents.
National Survey of Women, 1991
Investigators: Koray Tanfer
The 1991 National Survey of Women (NSW) was conducted between March 1991 and January 1992 under grant No. HD-26631 from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD). The NSW was designed as a follow-up to the 1983 National Survey of Unmarried Women (NSUW), which examined sexual, contraceptive and fertility behaviors, along with factors affecting those behaviors, in a national household probability sample of never-married women between the ages of 20 and 29. The NSW sample consists of two subsamples of women. Women in the first subsample (n=929) were first interviewed as part of the NSUW in 1983 when they were 20-29 years old and had never been married. These women were subsequently traced and reinterviewed in 1991. The second subsample of women (n=740) was obtained from a new area probability sample of 20-27 year old women, regardless of marital status; women in this latter sample were interviewed for the first time in 1991. The combined sample consists of 1,669 women who were 20-37 years old in 1991. In-person interviews were conducted using a standard questionnaire and assessed information regarding respondents' personal background; pregnancy history; sexual initiation and current exposure; current husband or partner; previous marital relationships; nonmarital sexual partners; nonsexual romantic partners; health and risk-taking behavior; attitudes, perceptions and knowledge regarding health and contraception; and condom use. A self-administered questionnaire, which assessed self-esteem, locus of control, and attitudes toward marriage, was also completed by respondents.
FOCUS Training Modules
Investigators: Emily Newman & Josefina J. Card
These multimedia, interactive training modules will help you train for and implement the intervention FOCUS: Preventing Sexually Transmitted Infections and Unwanted Pregnancies among Young Women. The FOCUS program, a four-session cognitive-behavioral group intervention addressed preventing sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and unintended pregnancies, was originally delivered to young women US Marine Corps recruits. The FOCUS training contains 8 modules, each approximately 5-10 minutes long, and covers important information and skills for FOCUS facilitators. The modules contain videos, quizzes, and interactive learning exercises. Over the course of the training, the modules cover topics such as: program background and information; the original implementation(s) of the program; how to lead a role play or group discussion; and adapting the program for your context.
Evaluation Tools and Publications
Investigators: Josefina J. Card, Ph.D., Claire Brindis, Dr.P.H., James L. Peterson, Ph.D., & Starr Niego, Ph.D.
This product consists of eight evaluation tools, publications, and resources: (1) Data Management: An Introductory Workbook for Teen Pregnancy Program Evaluators. This publication describes the basic practical steps in conducting the second half of the research process, and covers data coding, data entry, data cleaning, variable creation, and analysis. (2) Evaluation Readiness Assessment Guide: Is Your Program Ready To Evaluate Its Effectiveness? This comprehensive, easy-to-use guide assists programs to determine if their intervention is ready to be evaluated. (3) Guidebook: Evaluating Teen Pregnancy Prevention Programs. This is a comprehensive guide to the implementation of evaluation methods into all aspects of teen pregnancy programming. (4) Sourcebook of Comparison Data for Evaluating Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Programs. This Sourcebook is meant to facilitate use of existing data as a source of comparison statistics. (5) HIV/AIDS Prevention Program Archive Evaluation Assistance Kit (HEAK). This kit is a comprehensive questionnaire item bank that can be customized for use with any adult HIV/AIDS prevention program. (6) Prevention Minimum Evaluation Data Set (PMEDS). This publication provides a core Primary Questionnaire, with optional Supplementary Modules, that can be used for evaluating all teen pregnancy and teen STD/HIV/AIDS prevention programs. (7) Prevention Minimum Evaluation Data Set Jr (PMEDS Jr). This version of PMEDS is particularly well-suited for programs emphasizing abstinence and programs aimed at younger teens. (8) Prevention Minimum Evaluation Data Set Jr. + (PMEDS Jr. +). This publication is considerably shorter than PMEDS, making it easier for local programs to select questions and develop a survey. It is particularly well-suited for programs emphasizing abstinence and programs aimed at younger teens.
Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), 2001
Investigators: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is a collaborative project of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and U.S. states and territories. The BRFSS, administered and supported by the Behavioral Surveillance Branch (BSB) of the CDC, is an on-going data collection program designed to measure behavioral risk factors in the adult population 18 years of age or over living in households. The BRFSS was initiated in 1984, with 15 states collecting surveillance data on risk behaviors through monthly telephone interviews. The number of states participating in the survey increased, so that by 2001, 50 States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Virgin Islands were participating in the BRFSS. The objective of the BRFSS is to collect uniform, state-specific data on preventive health practices and risk behaviors that are linked to chronic diseases, injuries, and preventable infectious diseases in the adult population. Factors assessed by the BRFSS include tobacco use, health care coverage, HIV/AIDS knowledge and prevention, physical activity, and fruit and vegetable consumption. Data are collected from a random sample of adults (one per household) through a telephone survey. This dataset contains observations from only those states that participated in the "Sexual Behavior" modules, which included questions on HIV/AIDS. PETRA 10 is comprised of cases from Delaware and New Jersey.
Alternative High School Youth Risk Behavior Study, 1998
Investigators: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) is an epidemiologic surveillance system that was established by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to monitor the prevalence of youth behaviors that most influence health. The 1998 national alternative high school Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is one component of the YRBSS. The YRBS focuses on health-risk behaviors established during youth that result in the most significant mortality, morbidity, disability, and social problems during both youth and adulthood. These include: behaviors that result in unintentional and intentional injuries; tobacco use; alcohol and other drug use; sexual behaviors that result in HIV infection, other sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs), and unintended pregnancies; dietary behaviors; and physical activity. Results from the Alternative High School YRBS are used by CDC to: (1) identify the prevalence and age of initiation of priority health-risk behaviors among students attending alternative high schools; and 2) identify the need for school health programs and policies for students attending alternative high schools. Four previous versions of the YRBS have been archived at Sociometrics. The 1992 survey (DAAPPP data set K9), the 1993 (data set M1), 1995 (data set N4), the 1997 (data set P5), and the 1999 (data set P7). Each of these data sets is cross-sectional.