Group Activity: The Game
Developed by Donnovan Somera Yisrael and Carolyn Laub for the
MidPeninsula YWCA, 1998.
Objective: To enable participants to see and critique the
complex system of values and rules that regulate our sexual behavior.
Minimum Time: 45 minutes
Click here to download a detailed
guide for this activity.
Group Activity: Gender Role Play: What’s
Adapted from Exercise 11 in Gender or Sex: Who Cares? Skills-building
Resource Pack on Gender and Reproductive Health for Adolescents and
Youth Workers (de Bruyn, 2001).
Objective: To guide participants through an analysis of situations
involving gender norms, relationships, and sex, and to encourage them
to think of ways to reduce possible risks.
Minimum Time: 30 minutes
Click here to download a detailed guide
for this activity.
Sexually Transmitted Infections & HIV/AIDS
Fleming, D.T. & Wasserheit, J.N. From epidemiological synergy
to public health policy and practice: The contribution of other sexually
transmitted diseases to sexual transmission of HIV infection. Sexually
Transmitted Infections, 75(1):3-17, 1999.
This article reviews the scientific data on the role of sexually transmitted
diseases (STDs) in sexual transmission of HIV infection, and discusses
the implications of these findings for HIV and STI/STD prevention
policy and practice.
Behavioral Risk Factors
Sex and Drugs and the Virus
Ostrow, D.G. Sex and Drugs and the Virus. In The Emergence of
AIDS: The Impact on Immunology, Microbiology, and Public Health, K.H.
Mayer & H.F. Pizer (eds.). Washington, D.C.: American Public Health
In the early 1980’s, the idea that drugs alone, apart from needle
sharing, played a role in the transmission of HIV was not popularly
accepted. Drug users and gay men were viewed as separate populations.
Since then, nonintravenous “recreational” drug use has
become well recognized as a significant factor in the homosexual transmission
of HIV and other STDs. This chapter reviews the history of sex-drug
research during the US HIV/AIDS epidemic.
Psychological Risk Factors
Psychosocial Predictors of Risky Sexual Behaviors
Myers, H.F., Javanbakht, M., Martinez, M., & Obediah, S. Psychosocial
predictors of risky sexual behaviors in African American men: implications
for prevention. AIDS Education and Prevention, 15(1 Suppl A):66-79,
Psychosocial predictors of sexual risk taking were investigated in
a community sample of HIV-positive and HIV-negative African American
men enrolled in the African American Health Project. HIV-negative
men, men who have sex with men and women (MSM/W), and men who have
sex with men (MSM) engaged in more high-risk sexual behaviors than
heterosexuals and HIV-positive men, but men who were HIV-positive
carried a heavier burden of psychosocial risk factors. High psychological
distress, being HIV-negative, older age, low socioeconomic status
(SES), and being an MSM/W were the best predictors of sexual risk.
Results confirm previous findings of riskier sexual lifestyle among
MSM/W, men with low SES, and men who are experiencing significant
Demographic Risk Factors
The Triple Burden of Race, Class, and Gender
Quinn, S.C. AIDS and the African American woman: The triple burden
of race, class, and gender. Health Education Quarterly, 20:305-320,
This article explores the interaction of race, gender, and social
class as risk factors for HIV infection, and addresses the need for
health educators to overcome fear, class prejudice, and racial bias.
Social and Cultural Risk Factors
Social Inequality and HIV Infection in Women
Zierler, S. & Krieger, N. Social Inequality and HIV Infection
in Women. In The Emergence of AIDS: The Impact on Immunology, Microbiology,
and Public Health, K.H. Mayer & H.F. Pizer (eds.). Washington,
D.C.: American Public Health Association, 2000.
Social inequality plays a significant role in HIV infection among
US women. To explain which women are at risk and why, this chapter
reviews the epidemiology of HIV and AIDS among women in light of conceptual
frameworks that link health with social justice.