Glossary
 
     
Living with HIV/AIDS  





PowerPoint Slides for Module 1
PowerPoint Slides for Chapter 2
Learning Activities
Web Resources
Recommended Reading

 

Assignment: The Face of HIV/AIDS

  • Pick a country or region of the world or an HIV/AIDS risk group.
    Examples:
    • Sub-Saharan Africa
    • Non-gay identifying African American men who have sex with men (i.e. men on the “down low”)
    • Migrant workers in the United States
    • Injection drug-using women in U.S. cities
    • Men and women in Jamaica
  • Write a two page summary (using text and visuals) of the prevalence of HIV and AIDS, specific risk factors, and current HIV/AIDS prevention efforts in that country, region, or group.

Assignment: HIV/AIDS Timeline

Since first recognized as a distinct infectious disease in 1981, HIV/AIDS has created a tremendous burden of illness and death in the United States.

  • Create a visual timeline presenting the major events and advances in the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the United States.

Assignment: Trends in HIV/AIDS Incidence: The Difference between Men and Women

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the annual rate of death among HIV infected individuals in the United States peaked in 1995, decreased through 1997, and leveled after 1998.

  • Write a detailed report summarizing the HIV/AIDS surveillance data on HIV/AIDS mortality rates in the United States from the 1980s through today, and respond to the following questions:
    • What accounted for the decline in the number of new AIDS cases for both men and women in the United States in the late 1990s?
    • Why has the number of newly reported AIDS cases in American women not declined at the same rate as that of men?

NOTE: Good sources of U.S. HIV/AIDS-related surveillance data and reports are the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (http://www.cdc.gov) and the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation (http://www.kff.org).

 

History of Scientific Discovery and HIV/AIDS

In Their Own Words: NIH Researchers Recall the Early Years of AIDS (NIH)
http://aidshistory.nih.gov/
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) launched this website to commemorate the twentieth anniversary of the first publication about AIDS ("Pneumocystis Pneumonia--Los Angeles," by Michael Gottlieb et al., Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 30: 250-52, June 5, 1981). This website features compelling stories told through interviews of physicians, scientists, nurses, and administrators involved in AIDS research at NIH. The voices of some of them can be heard in audio clips, in which they discuss their first encounters with AIDS patients, the discovery of HIV, the search for treatments, and other aspects of AIDS treatment and research. In addition to the oral history transcripts and brief biographies, the site features a 1981-1988 timeline of key events in AIDS history, focused mainly on NIH and other federal agencies, as well as document and image archives. The document archive includes selected press releases, articles authored by Dr. Harden, as well as copies of the AIDS Memorandum, which was a fast-track way to circulate unpublished observations and data among NIH AIDS researchers in the early 1980s.

HIV/AIDS Surveillance and Statistics

Global and U.S. HIV/AIDS Surveillance and Statistics (HIVInsite - University of California, San Francisco)
http://hivinsite.ucsf.edu/InSite?page=li-12-01
Comprehensive list of links to global and U.S. HIV/AIDS surveillance and statistics.

Links to global research data include:


Links to national (U.S.) research data include:

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report
    http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/stats/hasrlink.htm
    Links to the most current U.S. HIV/AIDS surveillance data published annually.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Statistics and Trends in HIV and AIDS in the United States
    http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/stat-trends.htm
    Includes basic statistics and links to slide sets (pdf and PowerPoint) that display visual summaries of U.S. HIV/AIDS trends and statistics.
  • Kaiser Family Foundation: State Health Facts Online
    http://www.statehealthfacts.kff.org/
    Contains the latest state-level data on demographics, health, and health policy, including HIV/AIDS, health coverage, access, financing, and state legislation.

The HIV/AIDS Epidemic’s History of Scientific Discovery

The Emergence of AIDS: The Impact on Immunology, Microbiology, and Public Health
Searching for the cause of AIDS led to dozens of discoveries that would otherwise have been delayed for years, particularly those related to the human immune system. These chapters, in The Emergence of AIDS: The Impact on Immunology, Microbiology, and Public Health, review the scientific discoveries, advances in laboratory techniques, and innovations in collaborative research between epidemiologists, clinicians, and scientists that have come out of the quest for understanding HIV/AIDS.

Kanki, P.J. & Essex, M.E. The Past and Future of HIV. In The Emergence of AIDS: The Impact on Immunology, Microbiology, and Public Health, K.H. Mayer & H.F. Pizer, eds. Washington, D.C.: American Public Health Association, 2000.

Laurence, J. The Virus Versus the Immune System. In The Emergence of AIDS: The Impact on Immunology, Microbiology, and Public Health, K.H. Mayer & H.F. Pizer, eds. Washington, D.C.: American Public Health Association, 2000.

Mayer, K. How infectious is Infectious? In The Emergence of AIDS: The Impact on Immunology, Microbiology, and Public Health, K.H. Mayer & H.F. Pizer, eds. Washington, D.C.: American Public Health Association, 2000.

DeGruttola, V. The Response of Quantitative Scientists to Challenges Posed by the AIDS Epidemic. In The Emergence of AIDS: The Impact on Immunology, Microbiology, and Public Health, K.H. Mayer & H.F. Pizer, eds. Washington, D.C.: American Public Health Association, 2000.

HIV/AIDS Epidemiology

Epidemiology of HIV/AIDS in the United States (Osmond, 2003)
Summarizes the history of HIV/AIDS surveillance, and reviews the methods and results of the efforts to understand the prevalence and incidence of HIV/AIDS in the United States.
Available online at http://www.hivinsite.com/InSite.jsp?page=kb-01&doc=kb-01-03

Current worldwide HIV/AIDS Statistics: AIDS by the Numbers (UNAIDS)
This report, published annually by WHO and UNAIDS, contains up-to-date information and statistics about the global pandemic.
Available online at http://www.unaids.org/en/resources/documents/2015/AIDS_by_the_numbers_2015

Current U.S. HIV/AIDS Statistics: HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report (CDC)
This report, published annually by the Centers for Disease Control, contains up-to-date information and statistics about the epidemic in the United States.
Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/stats/hasrlink.htm

Second –Generation HIV Surveillance: Better Data for Decision-Making (WHO, 2004)
Rehle, T., Lazzani, S., Dallabetta, G, & Asamoah-Odei. Second-generation HIV surveillance: Better data for decision-making. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 82(2):121-127, 2004.
This paper explains the benefits of using second-generation surveillance systems in providing comprehensive, cost-effective and appropriate response to HIV/AIDS control programs. Second-generation systems focus on improving and expanding existing surveillance methods and combine them in ways that have the greatest explanatory power. The authors emphasize improvements in the current surveillance methodologies, and discuss in detail crucial issues such as the validity of HIV prevalence data measured in pregnant women and linking HIV surveillance and behavioral data collection.

Methods and Tools for HIV/AIDS Estimates & Projections (Ward, Walker, & Ghys, 2004)
Ward, H., Walker, N., & Ghys, P.D. (Eds.) Methods and tools for HIV/AIDS estimates and projections. Sexually Transmitted Infections, 80(Suppl 1), 2004.
The August 2004 supplement to the journal Sexually Transmitted Infections presents seven articles that describe some of the tools generated by researchers to assist with HIV surveillance systems.

Principles of Epidemiology
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. CDC Principles of Epidemiology, 2nd edition. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control, 1998.
Principles of Epidemiology is an excellent introductory text and is used extensively by public health agencies to train personnel in epidemiology. It is a publication of the Centers for Disease Control, the primary federal agency involved in HIV/AIDS surveillance.

© Sociometrics Corporation, 2004