Pick a country or region of the world or an HIV/AIDS
Non-gay identifying African American men who
have sex with men (i.e. men on the “down low”)
Migrant workers in the United States
Injection drug-using women in U.S. cities
Write a two page summary (using text and visuals)
of the prevalence of HIV and AIDS, specific risk factors, and current
HIV/AIDS prevention efforts in that country, region, or group.
Assignment: HIV/AIDS Timeline
Since first recognized as a distinct infectious disease in 1981,
HIV/AIDS has created a tremendous burden of illness and death in the
Create a visual timeline presenting the major events
and advances in the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the United States.
Assignment: Trends in HIV/AIDS Incidence: The Difference
between Men and Women
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the
annual rate of death among HIV infected individuals in the United
States peaked in 1995, decreased through 1997, and leveled after 1998.
Write a detailed report summarizing the HIV/AIDS
surveillance data on HIV/AIDS mortality rates in the United States
from the 1980s through today, and respond to the following questions:
What accounted for the decline in the number
of new AIDS cases for both men and women in the United States
in the late 1990s?
Why has the number of newly reported AIDS cases
in American women not declined at the same rate as that of men?
NOTE: Good sources of U.S. HIV/AIDS-related surveillance data and
reports are the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (http://www.cdc.gov)
and the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation (http://www.kff.org).
History of Scientific Discovery and HIV/AIDS
In Their Own Words: NIH Researchers Recall the Early Years
of AIDS (NIH)
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) launched this website to commemorate
the twentieth anniversary of the first publication about AIDS ("Pneumocystis
Pneumonia--Los Angeles," by Michael Gottlieb et al., Morbidity
and Mortality Weekly Report, 30: 250-52, June 5, 1981). This website
features compelling stories told through interviews of physicians,
scientists, nurses, and administrators involved in AIDS research at
NIH. The voices of some of them can be heard in audio clips, in which
they discuss their first encounters with AIDS patients, the discovery
of HIV, the search for treatments, and other aspects of AIDS treatment
and research. In addition to the oral history transcripts and brief
biographies, the site features a 1981-1988 timeline of key events
in AIDS history, focused mainly on NIH and other federal agencies,
as well as document and image archives. The document archive includes
selected press releases, articles authored by Dr. Harden, as well
as copies of the AIDS Memorandum, which was a fast-track way to circulate
unpublished observations and data among NIH AIDS researchers in the
HIV/AIDS Surveillance and Statistics
Global and U.S. HIV/AIDS Surveillance and Statistics (HIVInsite
- University of California, San Francisco)
Comprehensive list of links to global and U.S. HIV/AIDS surveillance
Links to global research data include:
- HIVInsite: Countries and Regions
Global, regional, and country-level information on HIV/AIDS, including
statistics, key indicators, maps, reports, and links.
- Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS): Epidemiology Publications
Includes global and country reports on the state of the pandemic, and
archives of documents on estimates, projections, surveillance, and reporting.
- World Health Organization (WHO): Epidemiological Fact Sheets
Compilations of the available serological and behavioral data in a country.
- WHO: Global Atlas of Infectious Disease
Standardized data and statistics for infectious diseases at country,
regional, and global levels. Resource includes interactive database
and mapping interface.
- UNAIDS/ WHO: Facts and Figures on International HIV/AIDS Prevalence
and Incidence http://www.who.int/hiv/facts/en/
A listing of UNAIDS and WHO reports and resources on prevalence and
incidence of HIV/AIDS around the world.
Links to national (U.S.) research data include:
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: HIV/AIDS Surveillance
Links to the most current U.S. HIV/AIDS surveillance data published
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Statistics and
Trends in HIV and AIDS in the United States
Includes basic statistics and links to slide sets (pdf and PowerPoint)
that display visual summaries of U.S. HIV/AIDS trends and statistics.
- Kaiser Family Foundation: State Health Facts Online
Contains the latest state-level data on demographics, health, and health
policy, including HIV/AIDS, health coverage, access, financing, and
The HIV/AIDS Epidemic’s History of Scientific
The Emergence of AIDS: The Impact on Immunology, Microbiology,
and Public Health
Searching for the cause of AIDS led to dozens of discoveries that would
otherwise have been delayed for years, particularly those related to the
human immune system. These chapters, in The Emergence of AIDS: The Impact
on Immunology, Microbiology, and Public Health, review the scientific
discoveries, advances in laboratory techniques, and innovations in collaborative
research between epidemiologists, clinicians, and scientists that have
come out of the quest for understanding HIV/AIDS.
Kanki, P.J. & Essex, M.E. The Past and Future of HIV. In The Emergence
of AIDS: The Impact on Immunology, Microbiology, and Public Health, K.H.
Mayer & H.F. Pizer, eds. Washington, D.C.: American Public Health
Laurence, J. The Virus Versus the Immune System. In The Emergence of
AIDS: The Impact on Immunology, Microbiology, and Public Health, K.H.
Mayer & H.F. Pizer, eds. Washington, D.C.: American Public Health
Mayer, K. How infectious is Infectious? In The Emergence of AIDS: The
Impact on Immunology, Microbiology, and Public Health, K.H. Mayer &
H.F. Pizer, eds. Washington, D.C.: American Public Health Association,
DeGruttola, V. The Response of Quantitative Scientists to Challenges
Posed by the AIDS Epidemic. In The Emergence of AIDS: The Impact on Immunology,
Microbiology, and Public Health, K.H. Mayer & H.F. Pizer, eds. Washington,
D.C.: American Public Health Association, 2000.
Epidemiology of HIV/AIDS in the United States (Osmond, 2003)
Summarizes the history of HIV/AIDS surveillance, and reviews the methods
and results of the efforts to understand the prevalence and incidence
of HIV/AIDS in the United States.
Available online at http://www.hivinsite.com/InSite.jsp?page=kb-01&doc=kb-01-03
Current worldwide HIV/AIDS Statistics: AIDS by the Numbers (UNAIDS)
This report, published annually by WHO and UNAIDS, contains
up-to-date information and statistics about the global pandemic.
Available online at http://www.unaids.org/en/resources/documents/2015/AIDS_by_the_numbers_2015
Current U.S. HIV/AIDS Statistics: HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report
This report, published annually by the Centers for Disease Control, contains
up-to-date information and statistics about the epidemic in the United
Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/stats/hasrlink.htm
Second –Generation HIV Surveillance: Better Data for Decision-Making
Rehle, T., Lazzani, S., Dallabetta, G, & Asamoah-Odei. Second-generation
HIV surveillance: Better data for decision-making. Bulletin of the World
Health Organization, 82(2):121-127, 2004.
This paper explains the benefits of using second-generation surveillance
systems in providing comprehensive, cost-effective and appropriate response
to HIV/AIDS control programs. Second-generation systems focus on improving
and expanding existing surveillance methods and combine them in ways that
have the greatest explanatory power. The authors emphasize improvements
in the current surveillance methodologies, and discuss in detail crucial
issues such as the validity of HIV prevalence data measured in pregnant
women and linking HIV surveillance and behavioral data collection.
Methods and Tools for HIV/AIDS Estimates & Projections (Ward,
Walker, & Ghys, 2004)
Ward, H., Walker, N., & Ghys, P.D. (Eds.) Methods and tools for
HIV/AIDS estimates and projections. Sexually Transmitted Infections, 80(Suppl
The August 2004 supplement to the journal Sexually Transmitted Infections
presents seven articles that describe some of the tools generated by researchers
to assist with HIV surveillance systems.
Principles of Epidemiology
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. CDC Principles of Epidemiology,
2nd edition. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control, 1998.
Principles of Epidemiology is an excellent introductory text
and is used extensively by public health agencies to train personnel in
epidemiology. It is a publication of the Centers for Disease Control,
the primary federal agency involved in HIV/AIDS surveillance.
Sociometrics Corporation, 2004