Turning Point includes two separate interventions designed to reduce
the frequency and probability of injection-risk behavior among IDUs not participating
in drug abuse treatment programs. The basic intervention consists of two sessions.
In the first session, participants undergo HIV antibody tests and receive pre-test
counseling. In the second session, a counselor-educator provides detailed information
about HIV and HIV transmission and guides the participant group through activities
intended to teach behavioral strategies for avoiding exposure to HIV. Participants
in the enhanced intervention complete the basic intervention and attend three
additional sessions, in which they address HIV/AIDS pathology, drug addiction,
and safer sex practices. Both interventions employ videotape presentations,
role-play, hands-on demonstrations, and print materials. The enhanced intervention
also employs slide presentations, self-assessment tests, and lecture/discussion.
The program's effectiveness was evaluated in Dayton and Columbus, OH. Participants
were randomly assigned to one of the two interventions. Surveys were administered
to both groups at enrollment and six months after the intervention. A majority
of participants in both the standard and enhanced interventions reported safer
needle practices at follow-up. Although no difference in needle risk was observed
between intervention groups when all subjects were included in analyses, participants
in the enhanced intervention who reported unsafe needle practices at enrollment
were significantly more likely to report safer needle practices at follow-up
than similar participants in the standard intervention. (Siegal, Falck, Carlson
and Wang, 1995) View
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