Sniffer is designed to prevent intranasal heroin users from making
the transition to injection drug use, and to prevent those who have used injection
drugs in the past from returning to that mode of use. Participants attend four
90-120 minute sessions in which didactic materials, group discussions, and
situational role play scenarios are employed to communicate information about
AIDS, drug use, sexual risk behavior, and drug abuse treatment options. The
intervention also seeks to reduce non-injection use of illicit drugs, but advocates
harm reduction practices and treatment rather than condemning the behavior
of group members who use illicit non-injection drugs. The program's effectiveness
was evaluated in a study of 104 intranasal drug users in New York City, each
of whom had injected heroin less than 60 times in the previous two years and
was HIV and/or hepatitis B negative. Participants were recruited and assigned
to test and control groups. All subjects received information about AIDS prior
to enrollment. Follow-up interviews at roughly nine months after enrollment
collected information about drug use and sexual behavior as well as attitudes
towards AIDS. Participation in the intervention was associated with a significantly
lower probability of self-reported injection drug use and increased condom
use during the follow-up period. (Des Jarlais, Casriel, Friedman and Rosenblum,
1995; Casriel et al., 1990). View
more detailed information on this program.
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